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HIS107Y1 – October 18 2011 Chapter 15
Treaty of Nanjing (August 29, 1842)
- Ambassadors allowed in Beijing
- Tariffs fixed at 5%
- Cedes Hong King to Britain
- Most Favoured Clause
Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864)
Per capita cultivation land fell to the point that it could no longer sustain a living
50% of 60% of the land was in the hands of the rich
60-90% of the population had no land at all, becoming tenants of rich landowners
Tenants ended up paying 50% for renting the land leaving little to live on, which meant that they
had to borrow money
- Flooding of the Yangtze river
- Drought in Henan/Honan in 1847
- Famine in Guangxi/Kwangsi in 1849
- Government relief was perfunctory and funds were embezzled
Hong Xiuquan was a teacher trying to take the civil service exam, failing a few times. The
process was very competitive, and Xiuquan ended up having a breakdown. During this
breakdown, he comes to the conclusion that he is the younger brother of Jesus Christ and
comes up with the idea of a “God Worshipping Society.” He wanted to destroy idols, give up
alcohol and opium, and renounce foot-binding and prostitution. He eventually ends up
Xiuquan’s beliefs begin a movement, as the peasants acknowledge that the practices he
wants them to give up, do end up furthering the poverty they find themselves already in.
The number of followers starts to build up, and Xiuquan declares himself King of the
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (Taiping).
This is essentially a religious movement, giving something to all people to unite around.
The Qing troops are sent to put down the rebellion, because this religious movement has
been too appealing to many peasants and expanded and took over a larger area. The Qing
troops defeated them.
March 1853, Taiping capture Nanjing, the Qing auxiliary capital, where they establish their
The Taiping experience success, having 1 million. This success is a result of their anti-manchu
feelings and a messianic ideological army.
1853: Taiping make Nanjing their capital and private ownership of land was abolished.
Civil service exams are based on Christian ideas and are open to both men and women.
In the area that the Taiping are in, they prohibit opium smoking, use of tobacco, wine and
prostitution, footbinding, sales of slaves, gambling and polygamy.
Taiping abolished private ownership of land and communal utilization of land was
In 1855, the Taiping went north to the Qing court.
Defeat of the Taiping
Qing court did not approve of this at all, as they would lose their jobs and power. The Confucian
elite would also suffer from the same states.
Although Foreigners have a treaty with the Qing, they have no treaty with the Taiping. What
they find upsetting though is that the Taiping are outlawing opium, which foreigners are making
a huge fortune on.
Conseuquences of the Taiping Rebellion
30-40 million die
The Second Opium War / Arrow War
- Octo. 8 1856: Chinese police and 60 Chinese soldiers boarded the British ship, Arrow.
- February 1856: Father Chapdelain, a French Roman Catholic missionary in
Guanxi/Kwangsi province is murdered by local Chinese
- French join the British to attack China
- 1858: British naval forces bombard Guangzhou with their gunboats, and capture the city
by sending in troops
- April 1858: British and French move on Tianjin/Tientsin
- Qing government sues for peace
Treaties of Tianjin (1858)
Opening of 10 new ports
Permission for foreigners to travel in China
Lower Tariff for foreign goods in China
Indemnity, the Chinese must pay cash to Britain for this war.
Opium trade was legalized, so all foreigners want to trade opium with China.
Transfer of Kowloon peninsula to Britain
Self Strengthening Movement
Development of military industries (munition factories, ship building) with the use of foreigners
for guidance and materials.
Development of profit-making enterprises (railways, shipping, mining)
Enriching the country through light industries (textiles)