history notes chapter 19.docx

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22 Apr 2012
Chapter 19 - The Road to War
The New Culture Movement a movement among Chinese scholars in the early
20th century to re-evaluate traditional Confucian values and ultimately reject
them, since they see these Confucian values were what held China back
o Conservatism and traditionalism seen as roots of China’s problems
Chen Duxiu believed in individualism and western-style democracy
o Said they can’t have modern democracy if women have to obey
husbands/sons and can’t think for themselves
o Did not want to use ancient/classical Chinese
Hu Shi promotes use of vernacular Chinese, which he called baihua, supposedly
the everyday speech of the common people
o Said this would allow more people to be able to understand the language
and think in a more progressive way
Lu Xun wrote stories in New Culture Movement journals
o Did not blame foreigners, but China itself corrupt officials, illiterate
The First United Front (1922-1927)
Sun Yatsen lack of unity within his party (KMT)
o Wants to put down the warlords, realizes he can’t do this himself
o Lack of Western countries’ support for China
o Saw that Russia, after revolution, had been able to get rid of monarchy
Yuan Shikai gets loans from European banks for his Second Revolution
o Supported by Britain as he continued to exploit China
Seeing this, Sun Yatsen turned to Russians to help China with political
organization after his attempt at making alliances with warlords failed
A Soviet diplomat meets with Sun in 1923
o The two men release a joint statement: said Communism can’t work in
China because the country doesn’t have the right conditions (China has to
go through capitalism stage before reaching communism stage, currently
in its feudal stage)
Thus, this is the First United Front (period of cooperation) between Nationalist
Party (KMT) and the Chinese Communist Party
o Soviet Union urges CCP to join the Nationalists in a national revolution,
even though KMT are anti-communist
o Communist Party joins them and agrees that they will not push
communism secretly, Soviet Union says to CCP that they join,
overthrow warlords, and then promote communism
1925: Sun Yatsen dies, Chiang Kaishek assumes leadership of the Nationalist
The Northern Expedition (July 1926-June 1928)
Started by Chiang Kaishek to get rid of the warlords, who were exploiting the
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peasants, and show that China had a strong central government
Popular support for Northern Expedition
Chinese bankers and industrialists support the Expedition, but not a social
revolution because they don’t want China to turn communist
o Warlords were making it hard to do business, since they were disrupting
peace and thus the economy
o International companies will not do business in China if there is no rule of
Chiang Kaishek breaks away with the CCP in the middle of the expedition as
soon as he has subdued a lot of the warlords
o Initiates suppression of Communism in Shanghai
Foreigners supporting the Nationalists because they are capitalists, don’t want
their business threatened by communism
“Green Gang” supports the Nationalists because communism will make it hard for
the gangsters to exploit people
o Green Gang: secret society involved with organized crime in Shanghai
before 1949
o In 1920s and 1930s, Green Gang was exploited by business to control
workers’ strikes and the CCP
The White Terror (April 1927)
Chiang Kaishek searchers out and kills union members and CPP party organizers
End of First United Front
1928: Chiang Kaishek makes alliances with warlords, able to control them but
not eliminate them
Establishes capital in Nanking 1927
Western support for the nationals
o Foreign powers reduce their special privileges
o Tariff autonomy recovered; trying to show that they support Chiang
o Extraterritoriality reduced; showing respect for Chinese legal system
Banks happy with these conditions and the way Chiang is managing the country;
bank numbers and deposits increase in Shanghai in 1920s
Foreign countries will support Chiang because they have a lot of investments in
China and he is making the country stable
However, Chiang’s government is not strong because he is not a good manager
of a country
o Government had consistent deficit because Chiang does not know how to
collect tax properly
Chiang does not understand plight of the peasants either
o Indifferent to conditions of the countryside
o Still problem of excessive population
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