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Lecture

The birth of IR


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Wednesday, May 18, 2011
HIS103Y1
Prof. V. Dimitriadis
Lecture 2: The Birth of International Relations
Last class:
major last picture
survival to remain in existence
actions to ensure survival: negotiation, diplomacy, last resource war but risky
best result always achieved when there were international institutions in place
Today:
look at International Relations from the start
peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
the moment modern international relations began
huge event because it symbolized the beginning of a new era
the principles established then are still the same we follow today (exactly the same rules and patterns)
we will still practice them in the future: there is no better way to ensure survival of the world
e.gs of principles
every major war be concluded by a major peace treaty
exceptions: truce - when there is no peace treaty signed (Korea); WWII was the only other time there was no
treaty signed
try to eliminate all outstanding territorial issues
negotiations to be used
settlements agreed upon at some points have lasted ~160 years
Why did we have such a crucial peace treaty to begin with?
the war that proceeded it: The Thirty Years War
much more disruptive than WWII (to some historians)
wiped out over 30% of the population of Europe or 5 million
a conflict of that magnitude would not happen again merely in the name of self-interest: no state could go through
30% population loss
What made it so bloody?
It began with the church
October 1517
Martin Luther nailed 95 thesis to the church door (that day’s CNN)
criticized selling ofindulgences” a.k.a. document you can buy from the church that guarantees your entry
into heaven regardless of your wrong doings
www.notesolution.com
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unfair, unjust, unacceptable
basically he attacked the Pope
the Pope declared Luther a heraldic: anyone who did that prior to this event was burned at the stake
Luther went full scale
criticized the argument that the church as an institution was necessary to ensure that individuals had a
connection to God
Luther: based on their day to day activity they would go to heaven (without the church)
Luther survived because of political consequences:
some German prince accepted his views to separate state, church and individual
monarchy saw political possibilities
offered protection to Luther
if the church could be separated from its flock, so could the states do so from the emperor
the Church and the Emperor saw a great deal of financial loss in this idea
1648: started the 30 Year War
late 1620s: Catholics were on the verge of defeating Protestants
it was a turning point because every Protestant state would have been defeated if one state went down
there was no grey area (neutrality) in the war it was either the church or theterrorists”
all protestants had to fight to ensure the survival of their religion and political system
the introduction of military technology
professional soldiers
muskets and bullets
Gustavus Adolf equipped every soldier with a musket
The Protestants defeated the Catholics over and over
Lutzen battle: Adolf was killed and with him went all the fortunes of the war
cause seemed to have been lost
a Catholic victory seemed ensured
Entry of France into the war
was a shocking and major surprise for Rome
France joined the protestants thus ensuring the Catholic defeat
French defeated the Spanish
the fate of the Austrian branch was predicted to end up in defeat as well
How can we explain this?
the rise ofraison d’etat
I am French first and then Catholic”
it was a Catholic cardinal fighting against his own
the primary goal was to ensure the survival of the state vs. the survival of the church
if Germany lost then France lost too
France had no chance to survive
both parties were financially exhausted
www.notesolution.com
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