Intro Class

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Published on 25 May 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
What is the primary purpose of a state?
-Is its own survival and nothing else citizens matter only as much so we pay the
taxes so the state stays alive regardless of its political nature, citizens are only the
means to ensure its own survival when we pay taxes how is survival ensured? = by
adhering to its own national security and national interests = long term health and
security interests > the long term interest is used to create its own national policy and
how do they formulate it? > there is a realistic approach on what actions to take within
the foreign policy immediate security concerns are the main focus as well as
immediate health concerns when you maintain the border of your state, you maintain
the sovereignty of your state = security is crucial national interest and national
security are the two main components how does the state ensure these two
things? = By Statecraft = Diplomacy
-What do you need for negotiation? = an issue of concern and conflict and the
desire to negotiate your needs if negotiations dont work, you can bring in
Deterrence if deterrence doesnt work, you bring in Diplomacy which requires some
sort of military action it could fail and succeed If Diplomacy doesnt work, the
ultimate tool at states disposal is Force = War > War is foreign policy by other means >
War is applying military pressure to your opponent and most of the time states used war
as the simple and state forward solution > war turned out to be far more risky and
unpredictable than the other tools > states that resorted to wars lost out big time e.g.
Germans, Japanese, WWI
-Components for a good war 1. Have a good strategy! E.g. U.S and Iraq = horrible
strategy 2. Objectives for the war 3. Take into account cultural aspects 4.
Common enemy
-The Importance of War its rooted in our human nature and our character e.g. 1991,
2 German tourists in Northern Italy found a naked body on the Alps, they all thought he
was murdered or a victim of an accident because he looked so fresh, the cops thought
he looked fresh as well and they turned him over, it turned out that he wasnt a fresh
victim but he was 5000 years old from the Bronze Age > they found food, berries etc. > 2
years later they did an x-ray and they found 2 arrows in his heart > this proved to be
evidence of war in the valleys he came from we have to be careful how often we
resort to war Later on politicians decided to limit the usage of certain weapons in war
> e.g. Dum-Dum bullets eliminated which blow up your body once implanted inside you
> this didnt work because when you limit a weapon, states try to work around that rule
by bringing in more weapons later they thought religious and ethical codes a state
should follow would end war but those religious values conflicted with citizens and led to
more wars e.g. Christianity vs. Muslims later they thought that the usage of war
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