International Relations and Origins

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Published on 25 May 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Lecture # 2- International Relations and its Origins
-Oct 24th 1648 the peace of Westphalia (Austrian, Spanish, Prussian, German,
Swedish) modern international relations started on this day not only because it
indicated the beginning of a new era but also the rules and principles and laws that were
laid down back then were still very much the same principles we follow today, exactly the
same rules and patterns moreover, there is no change on how to ensure the survival
of the world and humanity
-Goals after 19481. Westphalia said that every single major war should be concluded
by a peace treaty we still follow this same example after 300 years later 2. Try to
eliminate all outstanding territorial issues 3. Negotiations are used not to resort to war
-Peace of Westphalia was the foundation of central European stability
The Peace Treaty
-Its Origins = The 30 years’ war in Europe initiated the peace treaty of Westphalia the
30 years’ war itself is much more disruptive than the second world war it wiped out
more than 30% of the German lands > of those a 5 million perished in the conflict
what made it so bloody and brutal? = 2 factors = 1. The structure and breakup of the
church 2. The introduction and the breakthrough of military technology, emergence of
professional soldiers > these 2 factors made the war so brutal that a peace treaty had to
be formulated so it wouldnt happen again
o1. The Structure of the Church =Martin Luther in 1517 nailed 95 thesis on the
church and criticised the selling of indulgences (the passport to heaven no matter
how bad you were) it was unfair and unjust in a morally upright church he
attacked the Pope and the Pope didnt take it lightly he was declared a heretic
he criticised moral corruption and argued that the day to day activity of a
citizen was guaranteed entry into heaven German princes supported his ideas
because they saw political ramifications in his religious views
oLate 1620s it was a full political crisis emerging everything was black and
white, no grey areas > youre either on our side or the other side Sweden was
able to destroy the Catholics over and over but later on the protestants were
defeated and Catholic victory would ensure throughout Europe this moment
was the entry of France into the war in 1643, the French defeated the
Spanish and the fate of the Austrian branch was guaranteed a defeat How can
this turnaround be explained? (the Catholics joined the protestants) > it was the
emergence of national interest > it didnt matter who stood on what religious side,
what mattered was your national interest > you give up your religious and moral
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Document Summary

Lecture # 2- international relations and its origins. Oct 24th 1648 the peace of westphalia (austrian, spanish, prussian, german, Westphalia said that every single major war should be concluded by a peace treaty we still follow this same example after 300 years later  2. Try to eliminate all outstanding territorial issues  3. Negotiations are used not to resort to war. Peace of westphalia was the foundation of central european stability. Its origins = the 30 years" war in europe initiated the peace treaty of westphalia  the. The structure and breakup of the church 2. The introduction and the breakthrough of military technology, emergence of professional soldiers > these 2 factors made the war so brutal that a peace treaty had to be formulated so it wouldn"t happen again: 1. They had settle the territorial issues > who owned what and who would inherit what 2.