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June 6th Lecture-Summer

Course Code
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Lecture 6
-Treaty of Utrecht 1713 ended the Nine Years War what was the most
important thing in the treaty? the entire treaty came down in 3 separate peace
agreements language that was used for the first time throughout all these
agreements ( between the French, British and Dutch/ French and Austrians or the
Holy Roman Empire/ French and Spaniards) in every single one of them, the
important aspect was the balance of power for the first time embedding it into the
agreement and into the language the best guarantee for Europe was peace >
peace can only be achieved if a balance of power could be obtained 
balance of power became a crucial component in the European stability
state system and without it, no state can survive for the first time is became
part of the treaty
- From 1713-1715 a string of checks and balances were done to maintain the
balance of power so successful that for 20 years thereafter, no major war was to
occur and that naturally despite the fact that not every signatory to the peace treaty
was happy for it there were a number of states that were disappointed about the
peace treaty because of the French and British actions by making a deal behind
everyone else no secondary powers could continue on with the war without
French or British support In particularly upset about the peace treaty were
Spain and Austria who are both secondary powers > neither of them able to carry on
the war on their own and both required assistance > Spain required French
assistance and Austria required British assistance > they had to swallow their pride
and accept the treaty
How important was the treaty in international relations? Even 165 years thereafter,
in Europe they still remember the Treaty of Utrecht
What secured this agreement/What lead up to it?
-Spanish possessions, the Habsburg Empire and the holy Roman Empire after the
30 years war, Austrian gains can clearly be seen why on earth was Charles still
upset? during the 30 years war, the British and the Dutch guaranteed that
Charles II would inherit Spain and yet they turned their back on the Habsburg and
supported Phillipo the 5th (Phillip of Anjou), king of Spain also Phillpo was
upset because he lost his entire Italian inheritance so neither side accepted was
happy and wanted to continue on with the war but couldnt because of Britain and

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-Britain and France made up a deal unprecedented corporation > why did France
and Britain suddenly see the light and have to work together? = both were
challenged by a succession crisis in both states the ruling monarchs died In
Britain, Queen Anne died in August 1714 to be succeeded by George I In France,
Louis XIV died in 1715 in September to be succeeded by Phillip, Duc D Orleans 
in both cases there were challengers to this In Britain there was still a genuine
king alive, James III In France, Phillip who became Spanish King thought that
he had the right to the throne domestic challenges could only become a serious
issue if they receive foreign support Britain supported James III and French
supported Phillip of Anjou and they did not support the Duc D’Orleans to take over
the only way to get around these challenges was the two ruling monarchs made a
deal with one another Spain and Austria could no longer launch a war on the two
states after this deal was made this secured the Peace Treaty
How international relations and the state system changed after 1713?
-1. Another war was going on between Sweden and Russia starting in 1700s lasting
until 1721 (along the same timeline as the War of Spanish Succession the
outcome was the Swedish defeat Sweden no longer mattered as a great power and
became an ordinary secondary power they gave up most of their possessions in
Northern Europe and more important, they allow Russia (Peter the Great) to
start playing an increasingly important role in Western European affairs 
Russia becomes an active participant in international affairs from this point on for
the first time before it was primarily French affairs but now the focus increases
on Russia
-2. Change within the Holy Roman empire The war of Spanish succession created
a new dynamic in the Holy Roman Empire until now, Austria dominated the
Germanic lands and dominated their politics this changed after the war of
Spanish succession for a number of reasons 1. there was only one kingdom in the
holy roman empire and that was the Habsburg empire, only the King of Austria had
that title and then they ended up with 3 kings > Hanover, a German state
supplied the successor to the British monarchy > George I comes from Hanover >
Brandenburg also received the title of a kingdom > that was only to entice the prince
of Russia to fight on the side of the Grand Alliance Diplomatically, the Austrians
(Habsburgs) still dominate it but it becomes difficult to control with 2 other
kingdoms Austrians and Russia now have a constant competition
Consequences of France and Britain making a deal

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-The British Succession Queen Anne died and immediately by the next month,
George became George I, King of Britain and he was not too pleased with the
new empire he ruled in Hanover in an absolutist style but in Britain, the
parliament ran state affairs he was quite surprised when that he had to go
through parliament when he wanted to raise taxes and he couldnt understand how
the British system works and he didnt speak English yet Also, he couldnt
understand why he couldnt bring his mistress while discussing state affairs even
for George, he understood that the succession was the most important issue because
it did get whim that there was a plot to overthrow his reign and conservative tory
rulers in England were in correspondence to James III in France James III would
not be brought back because he was Catholic George wanted to get rid of the
tory ministry and create a new govt with liberals and start a brand new
page in British foreign policy First of all, he had to make sure that the
Austrians and the Dutch still remain on the British side and keep the Grand
Alliance alive > thus he sent his foreign minister, James Stanhope to Europe to
negotiate b/w the Austrians and the Dutch > they negotiated the barrier treaty > the
end result of the negotiation was that 6 of the most important fortresses (b/w France
and the Austrian Netherlands) out of 11 would be given to the Dutch and the
Austrians would pay for it > this deal was signed by November 1716 in a
return for this British support, the Dutch agreed to recognise George I as the right
monarch for Britain Stanhope scored an incredibly important agreement with the
French > The Duc’ De Orleans also wanted to ensure his own succession not be
challenged by Phillip of Spain thus he sent his own representative while the Dutch
and Austrians were negotiations > their deal was that neither side would support
the other challengers e.g. the British would not support Phillip of Anjou and the
French would end the support of James III who still lived in exile > this agreement
was made 28th of November 1716, the French and British detant was agreed and
the two states agreed to cooperate in all state affairs this ensured the peace and
stability of Europe once the agreement was done, in January 1717, the
Dutch signed onto it and thus created the a new Triple Alliance these
three states were the most important states the fact that the Dutch signed on was
crucial since they were still stronger than Austria
-Thereafter, Stanhope could look over Europe and try and make Spain and Austria
sign the Treaty of Utrecht and eliminate all their problems in the meantime,
Austria was already in war with the Ottoman empire and it was successful with
them beating the Turks Spain decided to take matters into his own hands 
Phillip of Anjou married Elizabeth Ferneza and she was responsible for most the
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