May 25th Lecture 3- Summer

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14 Jun 2011
Lecture # 3- The Foreign Policy of Louis XIV and the Origins of the Dutch War
-Peace Treaty tried to settle the issue and make sure no similar issue would occur
and the peace treaty also tried to settle religious issues > Catholics and Protestants
eventually what emerged from the Peace of Westphalia was the secularization of
international relations > the pope and the church could no longer dictate which way
the international relations would go > the pope lost the great deal of power > also
the holy roman emperor lost power (the Habsburg Prince)
- Spain and Austria stayed spate and France emerged as the most powerful state 
the lead France to become the most powerful and dominant state with Cardinal
Richelieu (he was Catholic and France is a Catholic state) siding with the
Protestants and maintaining national interest dictated that this was for the
Protestant cause and helped them to victory
-Given the relations between France and Spain, the Treaty of Pyrenees > the
Spanish agreed to marry Louis XIV to the young Maria Teresa pretty much to get
the French off their back when Philip the king of Spain died, Louis XIV went
after his rightful inheritance
-What emerged after were some territories began the War of Devolution France
had a large standing army not much of a territorial gain and he couldnt squeeze
more out of the declining Spaniards during the war of devolution, all of Louis XIV
his allies turned against him, Sweden, England and the Dutch republic in January
1668 forming the triple alliance this antagonized him he immediately agreed
to the peace terms proposed by the triple alliance and signed the Peace Treaty of
Allachapple in April 1668 after he had on goal, to avenge the Dutch humiliation
The Dutch dictated no less than 5 kings and they were the most attractive state
-He wanted to avenge the Dutch humiliation and wanted to destroy them In
addition to his personal humiliation and his prestige, the economic rational
attracted him > his finance minister found out that the Dutch also had a very
serious influence in economic activities in Europe > they were the most important
and financial and stable state at the time > in terms of European trade, most of it
were in Dutch hands > the stock exchange in Amsterdam (The Bank of Amsterdam)
was very influential and they became the most financial center of Europe Louis
XIV wanted France wanted to be the most influential state in the world everyone
always went through the Dutch which is irony because the Dutch were a very small
colony run by merchants and people travelled via Dutch shipping
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-in 1664, a trade war was created by Colbert and a tariff was introduced on Dutch
goods being sold in France but they were so successful they could afford to pay the
tarrifs 1671, Colbert suspended the imports from France 1672 summer, the
only way to deal with the Dutch was to make Dutch trade the subject to the French
king > this meant to take over the Dutch state > this influenced him to start a
war with the Dutch republic Louis set up 3 tasks for the French State > 1. To
isolate the Dutch republic and make sure they could not find an ally > 2. To build an
alliance based with France > 3. To raise the number of the French troops and to
make sure they emerge victorious in battle and in all of these tasks the France
emerged successful
-The French ambassador assured the Dutch that there was no hard feelings b/w the
two states and the Dutch believed the Frenchs lies and they did not improve their
situation the French went throughout Europe by bribing the Swedes into an
alliance of friendship in 1672 Louis approached the English the very same year
and offered King Charles II a yearly pension of 2500 pounds if he said he will always
be closer to the French than the Dutch and if he declared himself Catholic, he was
given additional money and 6000 soldiers and June 1st 1670 this was signed in the
Treaty of Dover and he also agreed to go to war with the Dutch state > why did he
agree to do this? = he admired Louis absolute monarchy because Charles hated
the parliament making decisions the triple alliance was dead with Sweden and
England signed on with the French
-Louis and the French diplomats when a step further to make more alliances with
the German neighbours of the Dutch republic they signed a deal with two
German principalities in the North and East of the Dutch republic isolating the
Dutch from Spanish ports and also signed a deal with German states they signed
a deal with Leopold leader of the Habsburg (Austria) emperor but Leopold agreed
only if the conflict did not spill into German lands France isolated the Dutch
socially and politically in winter of 1672, the Dutch received reports from France
that huge masses of French troops are marching east on the German lands Late
march, the English declared war and April 6th 1672, the French declared
war against the Dutch > a surprise attack was launched from the East and sliced
through the Dutch state and the Dutch army was so poorly prepared >the minute
the two armies met, the Dutch simply melted away He could have easily taken
Amsterdam Glory meant a lot to Louis and taking a city that is not defended meant
nothing to him therefore he left Amsterdam alone The Dutch flooded the half of
the Dutch state and therefore you had to enter Amsterdam via air not land in
desperation and this ensured the survival of Amsterdam
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