Peace Treaty of Westphalia
lay out the pattern/principle/approach for IR, which we are still using, and will be using in the future
³What really upholds the European state system is the constant interplay of negotiations, which nearly
All wars since the Peace of Westphalia, except WWII and the Korean War, had negotiations and treaties.
-- 1500s Holy Roman Empire ± Christian churches are selling indulgences (passports to Heaven) to gain
huge profits from ignorant civilians.
-- Oct 31, 1517 ± Martin Luther announced his objections against Christian churches, denied the necessities
of the Pope and the churches, and initiated the Reformation Movement;
-- Martin Luther was considered heretic and was under prosecution.
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from the Emperor Ferdinand I. They traQVIRUPHG /XWKHU¶V YLHZRIDQHZ UHOLJLRQ LQWR DSROLWLFDO
indication; they established Protestant states in the emperor, but did not care about the religion itself at all.
-- In 1618, Spain and Austria Habsburg declared war on Czech and Bohemia (Bohemian Revolt), aiming for
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Protestant states such as Dutch, Denmark and Sweden.
-- The northern states entered the war, escalating it into an international war;
-- Gustavus II got killed LQDEDWWOHZKLFKODUJHO\GDPDJHG6ZHGLVKVROGLHUV¶PRUDOVLQVWKH&DWKROLFV
were again on the edge of victories.
-- France (catholic) entered the war on the protestant side in 1635, in fears of a catholic dominance in
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a. France subsidized all protestant states;
b. French themselves attacked Spanish Habsburg, distracted 1/2 of Spanish force to fight against France;
c. In 1643, Spanish Habsburg was defeated, only Austrian Habsburg was remained;
d. In 1648, both sides were forced to seek peace because of the huge loss (30% population loss for the Holy
Roman Empire ± 10-12 millions)
e. The war ended with the Peace Treaty of Westphalia;