Topic 1 - Peace Treaty of Westphalia

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Published on 2 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Topic one
Peace Treaty of Westphalia
lay out the pattern/principle/approach for IR, which we are still using, and will be using in the future
³What really upholds the European state system is the constant interplay of negotiations, which nearly
DOZD\VPDLQWDLQVDQRYHUDOOEDODQFH´-HDQ-Jacques Rousseau
All wars since the Peace of Westphalia, except WWII and the Korean War, had negotiations and treaties.
z Background:
-- 1500s Holy Roman Empire ± Christian churches are selling indulgences (passports to Heaven) to gain
huge profits from ignorant civilians.
-- Oct 31, 1517 ± Martin Luther announced his objections against Christian churches, denied the necessities
of the Pope and the churches, and initiated the Reformation Movement;
-- Martin Luther was considered heretic and was under prosecution.
-- 0DUWLQ /XWKHUV YLHZZDV VXUYLYHG DQG ZDV VXSSRUWHG E\ VRPH*HUPDQ 3ULQFHV ZKR ZDQWHG IUHHGRP
from the Emperor Ferdinand I. They traQVIRUPHG /XWKHUV YLHZRIDQHZ UHOLJLRQ LQWR DSROLWLFDO
indication; they established Protestant states in the emperor, but did not care about the religion itself at all.
-- In 1618, Spain and Austria Habsburg declared war on Czech and Bohemia (Bohemian Revolt), aiming for
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Protestant states such as Dutch, Denmark and Sweden.
-- The northern states entered the war, escalating it into an international war;
-- 6ZHGLVK.LQJ*XVWDYXV,,ZURWHWR(9(5<SURWHVWDQW3ULQFHLQ(XURSH³1RQHXWUDOLW\´³HLWKHUWKLVVLGH
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protestants;
-- Gustavus II got killed LQDEDWWOHZKLFKODUJHO\GDPDJHG6ZHGLVKVROGLHUV¶PRUDOVLQVWKH&DWKROLFV
were again on the edge of victories.
-- France (catholic) entered the war on the protestant side in 1635, in fears of a catholic dominance in
Europe: ³6XUYLYDOLVWKHPRst imSRUWDQWLVVXHIRUDVWDWH´ ³,DP)UHQFKWKHQ,DP&DWKROLF´
a. France subsidized all protestant states;
b. French themselves attacked Spanish Habsburg, distracted 1/2 of Spanish force to fight against France;
c. In 1643, Spanish Habsburg was defeated, only Austrian Habsburg was remained;
d. In 1648, both sides were forced to seek peace because of the huge loss (30% population loss for the Holy
Roman Empire ± 10-12 millions)
e. The war ended with the Peace Treaty of Westphalia;
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