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Lecture

HIS103 Original Notes.doc


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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On Statecraft and Strategy – Lecture Notes September 15, 2008
The “ICE MAN” – frozen, intact when found in 1991
Thought to be a warrior; or human sacrifice
Arrow head in his back; shattered nerves; wounds on right hand; left hand was a cross
Blood found on him (blood of 4 other men)
Victim of organized violence
Represent male part of humanity until recently
40-60% men up until pre-history died at 14-15 years of age violently at the hands of
fellow men; Comparatively 2% die violently these days
Sovereign states emerged creating a more peaceful world/ state; this lead to creating
police forces who exercise peace and order
Sovereign states accumulated more power as population grew
States purpose to protect National interest; protect law and order; protect people from
outside forces (states)
NATIONAL INTERESTS- economic welfare, shelter, survival (protect each individual)
diplomatic
Time progressed more threats to national security
Until recently two types of national security threats:
1. LAND
2. SEA
+ More National security threats recently including:
1. LAND
2. SEA
3. SKY
4. ATOMIC/ NUCLEAR
5. CYBERSPACE (SATELLITES)
6. AIR
War is created to protect national interests and survival
WWII – greatest war, 100 million dead; fought for its commitment to peace
From this it was learnt that states have to:
oLimit war in order to survive
oSafety in organized numbers
oModerate their conflicts
oIf necessary go to war together (united with other states to go after the opposing
states e.g. Brittan and France VS Germany WWII)
oCollective will to fight together
Inter- dependant “today’s nations like mountain climbers climb on a rope; climb together
to the summit or fall together in the abliss” said by Gorbachev (explaining war)
"Like mountain climbers on one rope, the world's nations can either climb together to the summit
or fall together into the abyss."

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War – international source of order, agent of change, guardian of order, threat to order.
The Legacy of The Thirty Years War and The Peace of Westphalia – Lecture Notes
September 17, 2008
International order (1) kept mutually tolerable bounds (2) system wide resistance
Peace of Westphalia foundation of international order
POST WAR CONFERENCES
Munster Osnabruck went on for 4 years
Westphalia starting point for organized systems/ international relations
Habsburg ruled Spain and Austrian empires
Habsburg tried for continental domination
Peace of Westphalia proved defeat over Habsburg’s challenged for continental
domination
Germany – fragmented
Balance of Power
SECULARISATION OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Removal of religion as a source of controversies in sovereign states
Religion almost lead to the destruction of Europe
1618 – 30 years war in Bohemia (now Check Republic)
1630s cities in Europe torn apart
Catholic vs. Protestant
King of Sweden (Gustavus Adolphus) was a military modernizer and genius
Saw Sweden’s national interest treated/ fear concerning Austria
1630 Gustavus Adolphus arrived at Germany’s shores
Co- existence = international relations
November 16, 1632 Lutzen; Gustavus Adolphus crushed main field army (Battle of
Lutzen)
Gustavus Adolphus died in battle
Richelieu – Prince of Catholic Church; led France into the 30 years war
1635 Richelieu interest for French national interest; Drove France to war to protect
French national interest
Powers/ states help and protect the others national interest; it would be in they best
interest to so because if one opposing power attacks one state than the opposing power
can do the same to the allies of the defeated state.
May 19, 1643; France destroys Spain in a matter of hours; Spain never recovers
1648 French/ Swedish empire went into Bohemia
France won 30 years war
December 1642 Richelieu died; victory for France victory for world

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RAISON D’ ETAT (reason of state) French
Autonomous political moral of the interest of the state determines the legitimacy of its
politics
France became European Power
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