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HIS103Y Lecture 30 January 30th

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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HIS103Y Lecture 30 January 30th.
Bismarck and the States System, 1880-90
Bismarck aims to be one in three out of five great powers – security in numbers
difficult because of – French revolutionist
oAustro-Russian rivalry over Eastern Question
How to maintain friendship between Austria and Russia – dilemma for Bismarck
because if Europe descended into war over Eastern Question than Germany would
be battleground in Central Europe and Austria would collapse – Grossdeutsch
January 1877 ‘survival of Austria-Hungary was a necessity of the first order for
the German Empire.’
Powers cooperate if East Rumelia revolts again and dealt with in a way that would
be acceptable for Russia and Austria
18th September 1885 Rumelia revolts and drive out Ottomans, want to ally with
Bulgaria. To prove he wasn’t a Russian pawn
Alexander of Battenberg, king of Bulgaria, forges on an independent path
This outrages Russia, who begins a more forceful policy
30th November 1866 Kalnoky, Austria, any Russian occupation of Bulgaria would
be impermissible and in violation of international law and treaties
Russian ambassador in Berlin, ‘make Austria disappear off the map.’
This put Bismarck in a severe dilemma – commits to survival of Austria
Bismarck to his son, ‘can’t let Austria go under, we will achieve that goal by
supporting Russian’s goal to satellite Bulgaria.’
How did Bismarck do this – get other to do his dirty work
Bismarck public statements in favour of Russia, put pressure on British
February 1874 Britain and Italy sign 1st Mediterranean agreement conservative
document: unite foreign policies in favour of status quo in Mediterranean Austria
and Spain join as well
Bismarck having shored up Austria, assured Russia it wasn’t isolated
Reinsurance Treaty June 1887 – Germain reinsurance of Russian strategic
oMaintaining benevolent neutrality towards each other if one come to
blows with another great powers however not applicable on a war between
Austria and Russia, if Russia attacked Austria, or a war between France
and Germany, if Germany attacked first
This in combination with Dual-Alliance discourages aggression
2nd article of Reinsurance treaty – Germany’s unqualified support to press home
its influence in greater Bulgaria
In the secret additional protocol. Bismarck promises diplomatic support for pro-
Russian regime in Bulgaria and Russian control of the Straits
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, pro-Austrian, elected new Bulgarian king – Bismarck
now obligated to admit that Austria was more important than Russia. Refused to
offer diplomatic support in Bulgaria
Then he encouraged formation of 2nd Mediterranean Agreement – same as first
but in addition the Balkans and specifically Bulgaria. This would normally invoke
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