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Lecture

HIS103Y Lecture 29 January 25th. Bismarck and the States System, 1871-79.


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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HIS103Y Lecture 29 January 25th.
Bismarck and the States System, 1871-79.
Bismarck; solid territorial foundation to ensure Prussia’s status as a great power
After Prague – German Confederation goes from 39 to far less states – Bismarck
had what he wanted and didn’t want to pursue Southern states, because it would
arouse France and Russia
France recognized it had been out manoeuvred numerically by Prussia, and
realized that at Sadowa France had been defeated
Napoleon III tried to right his wrongs in Italy and strengthening Prussia
Proposed France extend across Rhine and absorb Belgium, Bismarck refuses but
encourages Napoleon to target Luxembourg
Napoleon tries to buy Luxembourg (German ethnicities) explodes German
nationalism
Prussia vetoes French attempts and persuades Bismarck to do something about the
Southern German states
1870 Hohenzollern candidate for the Spanish throne – a German candidate would
strengthen Spain through family ties – Bismarck signs onto deal because French
would be surrounded by two Hohenzollern monarchies
Bismarck by March 1870 Savo Franco-Prussian war as inevitable and aimed for
the absorption of Southern German states – causes for this
oAppointment of Duc de Gremont as foreign minister ( thought France
deserved territorial compensation for Prussian gains)
oBismarck tries to test the new French regime – Hohenzollern candidacy
French hear of this, force Napoleon III to demand Prussia to withdraw
Hohenzollern candidacy
12th July 1870 Hohenzollern candidate withdraws claim – major blow for
Bismarck however incompetence of de Gramont handed Bismarck a second
chance
Duc de Gramont approaches Wilhelm I and demands him to never renew
candidature rubbing salts in Prussian wounds. Wilhelm I refuses offer, Due de
Gramont demands an apology, rejects demands again. Sends Ems Telegram to
Bismarck. Bismarck publishes Ems telegram but edits the version, and publishes
it on Bastille Day in France, France swept into war fury
Southern states obligated to stand by Northern German confederation by
defensive alliance. Bismarck convinced Prussia could defeat an isolated France
Isolates France by publishing French reports of acquiring Belgium – Great Britain
out Russia not willing to aid France, since Crimean War and Prusso-Russian
alliance to mobilize to neutralize Austria if Prussia fought France
Prussian victory at Sedan December 1870 – Napoleon III captured – regime
collapses
Trial French Republic – refused to make peace – for several months
May 1871 – Treaty of Frankfurt
January 1871 Hall of Mirrors at Versailles – German empire declared
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