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Topic 11 The Bismarckian Period

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Topic Eleven
The Bismarckian Period
-- Bismarcks MAIN OBJECTIVE:
-- Keep Germany in a majority; majority = security
-- isolate France; France could not find an ally nor revenge;
Bismarcks Alliances 1871-1882
-- 1873 The Three Emperors League (G,R,A):
-- War In Sight Crisis: G & F
-- Eastern Crisis of 1875
-- Series of revolt against the Ottoman Empire: Herzegovina, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Serbia;
-- Reform in the Ottoman Empire fails; Russo-Turkish war;
-- Treaty of San Stefano: Big Bulgaria;
-- Congress of Berlin: revise the Treaty of San Stefano (B,A feared the Big Bulgaria); R felt cheated;
-- The Three Emperors League collapsed;
-- 1879 Dual Alliance (G,A)
-- A & R opposing interest in Balkans:
-- The Balkans is the only place Austrian can revive her power;
-- However all affiliations there were with Russia (religion, ethnicity)
-- A wished to ally with B proposed another Crimean Alliance;
-- However 1880 British election Gladstone: ideological foreign relations, bringing moral and ethnic
issue with foreign policy
-- Gladstone thought, if there was a war to be, it needed to be with Ottoman Empire.
-- Austrias plan failed;
-- At this time Bismarck approached A and offered the Dual Alliance
-- Dual Alliances objective:
-- Ostensibly to keep the Habsburg Empire independent;
-- Hidden: -- dig a ditch between Austria & Britain; Austria & France;
-- If A goes to B; AB & F would wedge a war; if A goes to F, the same would happen
-- 1881 Three Emperors Alliance (G,A,R)
-- On Austria side:
-- the new Dual Monarchy (Austro-Hungarian Empire) needs stability;
-- turned down by Br;
-- Its easier to control R with R in the alliance than without (what G says);
-- no other choices;
-- On Russia side:
-- humiliated in the Berlin Conference;
-- vulnerable, no navy (although they broke the Black Sea Clause);
-- Its easier to control A with A in the alliance than without (what G says);
-- no other choices;
-- Bismarck has achieved again:
-- keeping Germany in the majority (this is the peak of Bismarcks political career);
-- keeping France isolated; as well as Britain & France separate;
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