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Lecture

Topic - 13 WWI


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Topic Thirteen
World War One
Background and Origins of WWI
-- Austria, after annexed Bosnia, land locked Serbia;
-- Serbian nationalists decided to liberate the Slavic people, forming Black Hand assassinations;
-- Archduke Ferdinand paid a state visit to Bosnia (June 1914);
-- Ferdinand was pro-Slavic and was willing to offer concessions to the Slavic people;
-- The Blank Hand, wanting to arouse international attention, assassinated Archduke Ferdinand;
-- Austria approached Germany, wanting to militarily oppress Serbia for revenge;
-- Blank Cheque (German-Austria): no matter what Austria will do, Germany will fully support it;
-- Germany did not have war in mind; merely want to humiliate Serbia & Patron Russia;
-- Blank Cheque (Russia-Serbia): Russia asked Serbia to fulfill all demands by Austria, but will support it no
matter what;
-- Blank Cheque (France-Russia): 1914 France gave Russia full support;
-- Austria demanded Serbia:
-- Cease propaganda & anti-Austrian publication;
-- All assassins be penalized;
-- .
-- A research in the Serbian state archive to see if the state was involved;
-- Serbia refused the last demand; violating sovereignty rights; wanting a diplomatic solution;
-- Austria issued an ultimatum 1914; didnt want a diplomatic solution; didnt want Serbia to exist as a state;
-- Austria declared war against Serbia July 1914;
-- Still, Austria did not want a World War, but only a regional conflict;
-- Russia mobilized, supporting Serbia, also revenging for humiliation in 1908 Bosnia Crisis;
-- Germany was alarmed; Germany mobilized, too; Germany declared war on Russia August 1st 1914;
-- Germanys main army was concentrated along the French border; France was alarmed;
-- France mobilized; Germany declared war on France August 2nd, 1914;
-- Britain declared war on Germany August 4th 1914;
-- Finally, Austria declared war on Russia;
-- World War I began.
1914-1917 Stalemate
United States and World War I
-- Italy joined the Allied Power and the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Power; but overall balance is
unchanged;
-- Thus both sides look to US.
-- Wilson was elected for promise of no-war; US did not want to be involved;
-- However US sympathy and business interest lied with the Allied Powers;
-- US entered the war in 1917, not fully on their will but caused by Germanys behavior:
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