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Lecture 11

HIS103Y1 Lecture 11: lectures 10 & 11

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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HIS103: Lecture 10 From Congress System to Concert of Europe 23/10/2017
Enforced Stability
- Congress of Vienna (1815): preserve balance of power, eliminate threat of hegemony and overwhelming of
entire continent
o Created it’l orgaisatio — Quadruple Alliance watched over France at all times
o Holy Alliance: wanted to preserve conservative monarchical order ( stability)
Destroying Bourbon monarchy undermined the continent
o Territorial redistribution: combined Netherlands + Belgium. United German confederation. Gave Prussia
a sliver of land. Reinforcement of Sardinia + northern Italian states & Austria
o Ignored nationalism and liberalism
o Allowed Britai to eale supreay ≠ superiority throughout the seas. No limitations on British
expansion. Russia was denied reward (Poland) for defeating Napoleon
o What as the purpose of this it’l settleet?
Britain: to contain France
Russia, Austria, Prussia: maintain legitimacy + support Holy Alliance
Would get militarily involved to stop revolutions in Europe, nationalistic or liberal
o Britai ≠ agree o eig polie of Europe
- Major five superpowers: Britain, Russia, France, Austria, Prussia
- March 1820: Rev in Spain
o King Ferdinand refused to accept liberal constitution (1812) placed under Joseph Bonaparte
o King refused to call parliament (cortés)
Military got involved to challenge royal absolutism
King would send military to revolutionary wars in Latin America
o Argentina, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, etc. gain independence
- How to address a Spanish uprising?
o Britain: No reason to intervene it is a Spanish-domestic affair
o Russia wanted to send 100,000 soldiers to turn down revolution to preserve Holy Alliance
Frae ad Austria do’t like Spanish revolution but like idea less of 100k Russians marching
through Europe
- July 1820: Italian uprising (Naples Sicily Milan)
o Milan is in Lombardy, given to Austria during Congress of Vienna
o Metternich + Aleksander collaborate to crush revolution, Austria broke from Britain
- March 1821: Greek revolution
o Based on liberalism + nationalism
o Wanted to break out of Ottoman Empire
o Metterih: ≠ support
o Aleksander: support
Religion: Greeks are orthodox Christians
National affinity: Many Slavs live in the Balkans
- London Convention (1827): coöperation between Russia, France, and Britain
o Greeks gain autonomy despite still being part of the Ottoman empire
o Turks reject treaty, end of November, 70:78 Turkish naval vessels sink
Declare war against Russia
- Russo-Turkish War (1828): Russia wins
o Greece is granted independence; Turks give territorial concessions to Russia
- Congress of Verona (1823): Restoration of Ferdinand to Spanish throne + removal of Spanish rebels
- USA: Monroe Doctrine (1823) the US will not intervene in domestic affairs of Europe. Demands that Europe
does not intervene in neither North America nor Latin America
- 1823: Britain pulls out of the congress system (had previously met in Troppau, Laibach, and Verona)
o Russias + Austrias, Russias + Freh do ot see eye-to-eye
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