Topic 7 - Defeat of Napoleon Topic 7 - Defeat of Napoleon

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS103Y1
Topic Seven
Defeat of Napoleon I
British Naval Supremacy
-- While all states on the continent were defeated by Napoleon, Britain escaped because of its navy;
-- France needed a VERY GOOD navy to defeat Britain;
-- 3 plans to invade Britain:
1. Tunnel under the Channel (Army of Invasion) : too time-consuming, no technology know-how;
2. Air balloons (air invasion): too many balloons- half a million;
3. Navy invasion: feasible, but will never work, because not strong enough to oppose the Royal Navy;
-- Napoleon needs “7-day freedom”; Britain was aware and prevented Napoleon by blockade;
-- Napoleons plan:
-- Slip through Gibraltar; allow the British fleet to leave the channel to chase after him;
-- Then ircle around the Caribbean and confuses the Britain; get the 7-day freedom’
-- Britain was well-aware of this intention and British fleets never left the Channel;
-- 1804 Spain joined France (recalled Spain remained neutral since the collapse of the 1st coalition);
-- However the neutrality of Spain was suspicious; Spain paid tribute to the France;
-- Dec 1804 Britain detected a fleet from Latin America; forced this fleet to surrender and handed over
the money, Spain refused;
-- Aug 1805 Battle of Trafalgar: British navy vs. joint French & Spanish navy;
-- Thorough British victory; British Admiral Nelson made a public hero;
-- Nelsons military innovation (followed what Napoleon did on land):
-- Line up ships in two columns and break through the opposing combined fleets;
-- Spanish fleets were completely destroyed; no chance for France to invade Britain again;
Continental System Economic warfare
-- 1806 Berlin Decree embargo: every state allied with France must cease trading with Britain; and
must pick up trade with France;
-- Frances plan:
-- Without money, Britain would not be able to subsidize anything;
-- Civil population would be stimulated, as in the French Revolution;
-- France would have money; thus France could enjoy political and financial supremacy;
-- Failure:
-- Napoleon did not realize the strategic importance of food did not prevent Britain from
importing grain;
-- France could not replace Britain in supplying industrial goods; not an industrialized state;
-- Eventually every state was fed up with the continental system; all started complaining;
-- Napoleon enforced this continental system.
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Document Summary

- while all states on the continent were defeated by napoleon, britain escaped because of its navy; - france needed a very good navy to defeat britain; - 3 plans to invade britain: tunnel under the channel (army of invasion) : too time-consuming, no technology know-how; Air balloons (air invasion): too many balloons- half a million; Navy invasion: feasible, but will never work, because not strong enough to oppose the royal navy; - napoleon needs 7-day freedom ; britain was aware and prevented napoleon by blockade; - slip through gibraltar; allow the british fleet to leave the channel to chase after him; - then ircle around the caribbean and confuses the britain; get the 7-day freedom". - britain was well-aware of this intention and british fleets never left the channel; - 1804 spain joined france (recalled spain remained neutral since the collapse of the 1st coalition); - however the neutrality of spain was suspicious; spain paid tribute to the france;