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Topic 9 1815-1848 Topic 9 1815-1848

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Topic Nine
Congress of Vienna In Practice
Revolutions across Europe
1. France July revolution 1830:
-- Louis Philippe in France (the Orleans Monarchy overthrew Bourbon Monarchy);
-- Saw Russia as an enemy;
-- English Parliamentary reform: wig government in 1830:
-- B&F’s “common idea”: liberal government;
-- B&F’s “common fear”: Russia (absolutist government);
-- “Liberal Allianceof 1830 (B&F);
-- B still wants to contain F, and finds it much easier than in the 20s;
2. Polish revolts 1830;
3. Belgian revolt 1830
First Near Eastern Crisis 1831
-- Turkey was invaded by Egypt; Russia offered support;
-- Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (Russia and Turkey’s mutual assistance in case of attack, with a secret article
Russia gives up Turkey’s assistance for Turkish agreement to claose the Straits to foreign warships);
-- This is wrongly understood by Palmerston, who thought Russia could open and close the straits at will;
-- Munchengratz Agreement (Russia and Austria are acting together now on the Ottoman issue);
-- Convention of Berlin (3 eastern powers agreement to suppress revolutions);
-- These Russian diplomatic triumph clearly alarms Britain and France;
Spanish civil crisis
-- Isabella II in Spain was challenged by his uncle;
-- Spain sought support from Britain, and provided help in destroying absolutism in Portuguese in return;
-- Britain brought France in (Quadruple Alliance B,F,S,P)
-- France considers herself “prisoner of alliance” under Britain; just as Prussia, Austria under R;
-- France develops a series of anti-English policy
Second Near Eastern Crisis 1839-1841
-- Turkey declares war on Egypt (Mehemet Ali) on revenge;
-- France held that Egypt should retain Syria; B-F entente collapse;
-- Both A and R wants to work with B in the crisis;
-- Four-Power Treaty of London 1840 settled terms for Egypt (B,R,A,P);
-- France threatened to go to war (F’s good friend with Mehemt Ali)
-- Change of Government in France (new foreign minister) and Submission of Ali (bombarded by B) ended
the crisis
1847 Crisis in Switzerland & Italy
-- Swiss question: France wants to take a lead; wouldn’t work with Austria;
-- Italian problems: both France and Britain wanted to offer patronage/support; Italians liked neither of them;