HIS103Y1 Lecture Notes - Mein Kampf, Munich Agreement, Eastern Settlement

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16 Oct 2011

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Topic 15
The Rise of Nazi & Appeasement
NAZI’s rise
-- The National Socialist German Workers’ Party Hitler promised EVERYTHING to EVERYONE;
-- Hitler argued:
-- Germany did not lose WWI; Germany was stabbed in the back;
-- Hitler blamed in on Jews & German Bolsheviks; (most important opponents of Germany)
-- Sent to jail in 1923; wrote Mein Kampf
-- New direction of Germany: creation of “Lebensraum”
-- Lebensraum: living space;
-- Germany needed to grow, not to the west, but to the east;
-- The East was occupied by sub-humans; inferior races; (Slavs, Gypsies)
-- In fact, the East (Ukraine) has the richest lands in Europe;
-- Coincidence: the east was ruled by The Soviet Union;
Communists within Germany were Jews;
-- These were the objective of his foreign policy until he died;
-- 1928 The Second Book:
-- Pin down some dates as by what time he should achieve his objective; very tangible;
-- Based on these two books, the whole Nazi leadership were brought to trial against humanity;
International background during Nazi
-- Germany actually faced quite good situation:
-- Russia was backward, weak communist state isolated by Europe;
-- Austria collapsed;
-- German soil and infrastructure were intact;
-- Allies themselves were bickering over the Treaty of Versailles;
-- US pulled out; leaving France and Britain never agreeing on each other;
-- Questions for Hitler: What approaches should Hitler take?
Four Stages of Hitlers foreign policy:
1. Cooperation (from Jan the year he elected to March when he reached total popularity)
2. Limited cooperation; testing of the international system;
3. Increased Testing and Aggression
4. Open aggression;
Stage One:
-- First meeting Germany attended under Hitler: disarmament 1933
-- Britain proposed F to cut down to 200,000, raising G to 200,000; parity between G and F;
-- Hitler accepted, hoping F would be angry and rejected it, which was exactly what happened;
-- France agreed to accept after 4 years of suspension, to see how well G behaved;
-- This French rejection was taken advantage of by Hitler;
-- Non-Aggression Pact 1934 with Poland, stunning everyone;
-- What he wanted was to show his willingness and good cooperation;
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Stage Two
-- First Test of Hitler:
-- 1934 summer there was also a Nazi party in Austria; they too want to establish a dictator state;
-- Hitler supported this because he always wanted the bond between A and G;
-- 1934 December coup d’état in Austria, trying to assassin Austria chancellor, though failed;
-- This alarmed fascist Italy:
-- Austria as a buffer zone between Italy and Germany would be eliminated;
-- Northern Italy what Italy gained in TOV would be in danger;
-- Treaty signed by B, F, I, keeping Austria independent;
-- Hitler backed down, ditching Austria, not to raise it again;
-- The first “test” failed;
-- Second Test of Hitler
-- June 1935 Hitler approached Br and promised:
-- German navy would never surpass 1/3 of the Royal Navy;
-- Br accepted, but that means: TOV dismantled; B, I, F alliance dismantled;
-- Third Test of Hitler:
-- Oct 1935, I decided to manifest Italian great power: attack on Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
-- I always lacked recognition as a great power (as it though it was);
-- Shortly I defeated Ethiopia;
-- First demonstration of the failure of the League of Nation: Only embargo was imposed (not
oil, fuel, gun powders, but nail clippers, combs)
-- Having seen this failure, Hitler was fully convinced that his chances came;
Stage Three & Four
-- Perfect timing: maintaining guns and butter;
-- Re-militarized Rhineland (March 1936):
-- No objection from any state; (G did not have enough troops; would not be able to handle B&F);
-- Britain founded it justified, not aggressive; France couldnt do anything without Britain;
-- This was an incredible diplomatic victory for Hitler;
-- The Anschluss:
-- Feb 1938 demanded Austria to put Austrian Nazi in an important position;
-- Refused; Austria was threatened by invasion;
-- Austria asked I,F,B for help;
-- Britain did not object changes to the Eastern settlement unless its carried out in peace;
-- France could not do anything without Britain; Italy did not response;
-- Germany went into A and united A;
-- Acquisition of Czechoslovakia (Sudeten Land):
-- aircraft carrier for Soviet Russia: Russias foothold; also of inferior race;
-- Negotiating & keeping raising the demand, until C got fed up and gave G the pretext of invasion;
-- France had a military pact with C; if war was to break out; F and B would have to be involved;
-- Chamberlain met Hitler personally 1938 to negotiate;
-- Despite that, Hitler issued ultimatum on C;
-- Munich Conference 1938 C was forced to dismantle its own state; no one was ready for war;
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