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notes taken from lecture - fairly detailed. my prof is the night class

Course Code
Herbert Kronzucker

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Oct.24,1648 = birth of international relations
Peace negotiations, Treaty of Westphalia-
same model used today and will remain for the forseable
political and territorial arrangement made
borders remained the same until napolean
common practices were outlines (such as every major war
must be followed by a peace treaty (except WW2 and Korean
war-just suspended)
30yrs war preceeding westfalia was worse than WW2 in terms
of material and human losses, ect. (ex. Germany lost 30% of
15mill) devasting conflict
conflict started b/c of ideological schism (protestants and
catholics), technical breakthrough (firearms, gun powder,
rebuilding of professional armies)
Westphalia= Started: Oct.31st, 1617- Martin Luther had beef with his
Indulgence could by your way out of trouble and into the
entry to heaven (money making for church) martin didn’t
like this
Pope didn’t like that someone was challenging him so he
threatened him (heretic death sentence)
Luther starts full on attack questions necessity of church
and pope can have relationship with god without church
Luther escaped and survived (in past would have been
burned at stake) and his ideas survived religious ideological
view could be turned into political implications of this view
(which german princes noticed, they were tired of following
holy roman emperor(Ferdinand) saving Luther, though they
didn’t care about religion just about political aspect and they
wanted independence)
Simultaneous attack on political structure and the church
Austria and Spain united and decided to eliminate the
protestant brand of bohemia (Czech republic)
Moved on to deal with german protestants
By 1620-21 catholics almost wiped out all protestants in Germany
Dutch then denmark then sween entered in b/c they didn’t
want to allow all german protestants to be wiped out
Made up for lack of man power by improving their armies
(Sweden equipped entire army with muskets) very
successful until...
-1632 small battle where Gustavos Adolphus died (he had written all
protestant princes to join them together)
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