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Lecture 14

HIS103Y1 Lecture 14: Lecture - revolutions and crimean war

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Oct 22
Revolutions, crimean war, and challenge to the vienna system
Fundamentally antimonarchical - ideas
o Monarchs are the devil
o Constitutionalism - states should be governed by a set of basic principles
Individuals have rights
Equality before the law
Protection from whims of aristocrats and royalty
Rights of people should be enshrined within a state
o Napoleon had taken these ideas around Europe - his army exported these ideas around
o Also gaining strength
o Early 19th century
o Fundamental conviction that the nation and the state should be equivalent
o Common nationality of people who live within it
o What is a nation?
o Common language and culture at the time produced a similar group of people - ultimate
basis for political organization
o People of one nation govern themselves and only themselves
1830 revolutions
o Intervetion - how to put down revolutions
They threatened the monarchical balance
Aust, prussiaa, russia esp threatened
o Not successful but increased fears
Ideas of nationalism built up for a few decades with war to build new states
1848 - explosion of more revolutions
o Began in france
o Encourages liberalists and nationalists elsewhere to rise
o France has a monarch
Ideas hadnt gone away
Group of frenchmen wanted to bring about revolution
Democratic banquets - feasts - revolution by food
Toasts to the republic
Monarchy outlaws banquets
One last one - procession itself falls into fighting (riots)
Bloody showdown - used by proponents of
constitutionalism and nationalism saying it leads to war, etc
Leads to revolt and fighting in france
Only a month after revolution in france it comes to vienna (1848)
o Major fighting
o Matterneck - flees vienna - leads to complete collapse of hapsburg austria
o Austria temporarily paralyzed as a great power
o Riots in berlin - Germany
All these revolutions
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