HIS103Y1 Lecture Notes - Stadtholder, Carl Von Clausewitz, The Great Game

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Published on 28 Apr 2014
School
Department
Course
Professor
Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations
09/09/2013!
!
Course Syllabus!
Weekly Tutorial Schedule of Topics & Readings!
1st Term Lecture Outlines!
1st Term Course Bibliography!
1st Term Essay Titles!
!
Final Exam Structure:!
!
Part A:!
Discussion of a general statement!
!
Part B:!
Material covered in the first part of the course (1648-1815)!
8-10 questions choose one!
look at tutorial themes every week!
essay for first term should provide answer in this section!
!
Part C:!
Material covered in second part of the course (1815-1945)!
essay for second term should provide answer in this section!
!
~!
!
The beginning of International Order!
Peace of Westphalia !
18th Century Balance of Power !
Destroyed by the start of the French Revolutions!
!
Mechanism of the Balance of Power:!
June 6th 1944: Allied Troops stormed German-occupied France. !
FDR Defined the purpose of the Allies as “Nothing less than the !
!
09/11/13!
!
Ötzi (Ice Man)!
Approx. %75 of ancient, male humans discovered across the globe have been found
to have died from human violence.!
Today, approx. %2 of human males today die from human violence!
!
Reason:!
The emergence of the concept of a sovereign state!
government!
law & order!
!
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Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations
Therefore, central governments must have met or satisfied the basic needs of their
people.!
Basic Needs, Such As:!
Food & Water!
Shelter!
A Sense of Security!
!
The need for personal security, above all, was what the sovereign state did best at
ensuring.!
•Extending the rule of law via militia, etc.!
!
However, the sovereign state itself is a living organism, with its own demands and
needs.!
• diplomatic!
economic!
cultural!
national security!
!
The overriding goal of the “great game” of international politics is survival of the
state.!
The state must not only protect its people, but also the way in which its people were
collected.!
!
States that fail to preserve to their collective security, are cast aside by their own
people.!
!
At one point, the only threats to national security came from either land or sea. (A 2-
Dimensional Threat)!
!
With the advent of the airplane, the threat became 3-dimensional.!
!
Into the 21st century a fourth threat to national security came from cyberspace.!
!
4 Basic Threats to National Security:!
Land!
Sea!
Air!
Cyber!
!
The Fundamental Definition of a Sovereign State:!
One whose people have given it the authority to make peace or war.!
!
“War ends nothing, war cures nothing, war solves nothing.”!
- Neville Chamberlain!
!
Yet, just as peace is a means to and end, so too is war.!
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Statecraft & Strategy: An Introduction to the History of International Relations
Preference of peace is what nearly allowed the Nazi Empire to conquer the war. !
Without intervention, oppression can run rampant.!
!
Across the globe, the problem of international relations between inherently warring
states, was solved by the empire.!
The Celestial Empire (Chinese)!
Conquered much of Eastern Asia!
Refused to acknowledge equality of other sovereign states.!
!
Many European empires that would emerge would refuse to acknowledge the equality
of neighboring sovereign states.!
!
In order to limit the competition of European nations and powers was the mechanism of
international relations.!
!
18th Century Balance of Power!
The first instance of possible cooperation between European powers.!
!
Enlightenment of International Politics:!
The pursuit of one’s own national interests had to be restrained by the need to ensure
the survival of other powers (even rival powers), because it was the survival of those
other powers in organized numbers which constituted the ultimate guarantee of one
own’s state’s survival. Individual powers were always vulnerable, but collective powers,
who pooled their resources and fought for one another could preserve their individual
entities.!
!
“Today the world’s nations are interdependent, like mountain climbers on one rope: they
can either climb together to summit, or fall together into the abyss.” !
- Mikhail Gorbachev!
!
Precisely because they are so self-interested, they ultimately end up cooperating.!
!
The Beginning of the Organized International Relations:!
- The End of the War for Spanish Ascension!
- A coalition of Britain and France!
!
Essential War is Two-Face:!
A Threat to International Order!
Nazi Germany!
Napoleanic France!
A Guardian of International Order!
!
!
!
!
!
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Document Summary

09/09/2013: course syllabus, weekly tutorial schedule of topics & readings, 1st term lecture outlines, 1st term course bibliography, 1st term essay titles! Material covered in the rst part of the course (1648-1815): 8-10 questions choose one, look at tutorial themes every week, essay for rst term should provide answer in this section! Material covered in second part of the course (1815-1945): essay for second term should provide answer in this section! The beginning of international order: peace of westphalia , 18th century balance of power ! June 6th 1944: allied troops stormed german-occupied france. Fdr de ned the purpose of the allies as nothing less than the ! %75 of ancient, male humans discovered across the globe have been found to have died from human violence: today, approx. %2 of human males today die from human violence! The emergence of the concept of a sovereign state: government, law & order, destroyed by the start of the french revolutions!

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