Victim of violence b/w two clans, ice man in copper age. Two arrows, with blood, was in a fight. We still fight over valuable resources and land to survive. For diplomacy to work both parties need: a. b. If a state takes an action, there will be consequences that would be worst than the benefits of taking that action. Will not work if there is no wherewithal or history of standing up (other states will not take threats seriously) Ensure strategic aims without major loss of life. War means annihilation to have opponent carry out your demands and enforce your foreign policy. War can never be 100% guaranteed to have goals achieved. If not right strategy, despite being militarily strong, it will be a disaster. To ensure the survival of the state and control the threat of war. Tie belligerants to a form of moral code to prevent the unnecessary usage of violence.