HIS103Y1: Lecture Four.
- Treaty of Westphalia: Ensuring the stability of the member states.
- Resulting in the fields of International Relations and Politics becoming
- The Pope lost his powers; the Princes of the German states were given his
- Spain and Austria were committed to remaining separated as part of the
- Aided the establishment of permanent borders as well as political ranking in
- France emerged with diplomatic clout:
Largest and most populous country in Western Europe- 19 to 20 Million.
3rd Largest country in the world in terms of population.
Developed a centralized bureaucracy, as well as being one of the richest.
Largest army: Raised upto 400,000-500,000 men.
- France also had a young and ambitious Prince: Louis XVI who came to power
in 1616; created his own desires and will.
Aware of the importance of “gloire” – Prestige, Honor.
Considered the apex of French society; wanted to have France known as that
throughout Europe. He also wanted to demonstrate the power of Versailles –
1665. The creation of his own power base.
Wanted to show the world, that France was the most powerful state:
- Major characteristic of his state/foreign policy: Aggression.
The desire to further raise his status and prestige through this tactic.
Also, his desire to increase the security of France.
- However, after reigning for 55 years – his foreign policy evolved.
- Inherited a good state from Mazarin: Internationally as well as nationally.
France had a number of allies – Dutch, English.
20 states in the Empire had key links to France.
- France remained at war until 1659 with the Spanish.
Until the signing of the Treaty of the Pyreenes, where he gained land and a
- 4 Border areas to consider: Coastline, remained a major concern for France,
considering it was mainly a landpower.
- Spanish border – southern border – Italian border – Spanish Netherlands