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Lecture

lecture 2


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Alison Smith

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On Statecraft and Strategy
The aim of the Great Game
OTZI was a warrior who was considered a remarkable man
75% of male human beings died violently since the historic times >5000 years ago
2% of male human beings died violently since the last century- due genocide, wars etc
Increased in the notion of physical integrity and “The sovereign state” This
institution has decrease exponentionally the likelihood of human beings perishing
suffering bodily harm. There is a problem stabilizing the order and relationship
between the new, consolidated states. States exist to protect the collective existence of
the people group, pursuing national interest- ultimately concerned with themselves
first of all. The most fundamental is strategic security, keeping in mind the existence
of diplomatic, economic and cultural needs.
Survival is the overriding aim of every sovereign state. There is not only the threat of
nuclear and conventional weapons. In the past threats come from land and sea-
Vikings. In the 20
th
century with the introduction of airplanes by the Wright Brothers,
threats have evolved to being 3-Dimensional. Now with the improvement of
technology, ie cyberspace, threats have become more terrifying- Estonia and Georgia
brushes with Russia, where all their forms of communication and technology has been
paralysed by cyber attacks from just a few personnel.
Ultimately States are war making machines. States feel more insecure than ever
before due to the new threats that awaits them/ powers that they hold. In the practice
of International relations, peace like war is just the means to the end.
The natural inclination of states is to fight to ensure security and to expand their lands.
But at some point or another, some states felt that taking a step back out of conflict
will mean a better chance of survival. Moderating conflicts for the sake of their own
state and also allying, helping each other to ensure the survival of their own state even
if they are not on good terms. Eg. France and Russia against Germany in the 19
th
Century and France and Britain against Germany during World War, even though
colonial rivalries exist between them. World War II, where Capitalist America,
Britain and Stalin’s Soviet Union came together to form the alliance against Hitler
even though they have differing ideologies. They can either climb to the summit
together or if 1 fall all will fall into the ravine.
War is an important agent of change within international order. The security council
of USA, Britain, France, Russia and China were because they were the last victors of
the World War, not because they are the 5 most powerful countries now.
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