8 War of Spanish Succession.docx

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Published on 21 Sep 2012
Charles II (Carlos) unable to produce an heir
Candidates = Louis or Leopold
Gain = Hegemony as the most powerful state in Europe
Will from Madrid - Offered to Louis but creates a dilemma
If not accepted Vienna, Austria
Imposes that France gets put in the same situation geographically as
200 years ago surrounded by Habsburgs
Louis claimed it on behalf of his grandson
"Im trying to avoid a major general war"
In favor of hoping to maintain natural peace and balance of power
Phillip of Anjou becomes King of Spain
Was war inevitable? NO
William III and Heinsius in Dutch Republic recognized him
Leopold rejected him since he got nothing out of this deal
Conflict between Austria and France
Louis could not accommodate giving land to Austria
Philip could not chop up the empire and give land out to Austria
You cannot be good king if you give out the land, you want to maintain it
NOT European wide conflict...just between France and Austria
One of the greatest wars in Louis' time
Louis made a war promoting climate; not securing international stability
Louis created the conditions and took it well beyond his own control
Political blunders, same situation as before 9 years war
1. When he wanted English and Dutch to recognize Philip of Anjou as King
Louis did something in the name of Spanish king to pressure them
To take over barriers and fortresses separating the Spanish Netherlands from France
Ryswick Treaty - previous treaty that concluded 9 years war
2. Buffer zone between the Dutch and France cease to exist
Nothing prevented France forces to enter Spanish Netherlands and approach Dutch land
France and Dutch became neighbours basically
3. Heinsius wrote a letter to William Feb 1701
William in a return letter Feb 1701 - in 1 day I see the security which I worked for 28 years evaporated
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Situation cannot be tolerated for Dutch, England, Balance of Power and security of Europe
4. Even after recognition as king, French forces did not pull out from fortresses
Louis took over those lands and violated the Treaty of Ryswick
Posed a direct threat to Dutch - diplomatic error
WHY? - Meeting in March...War between Austria and France was inevitable
If a general war comes to Europe it is better to fight it with these lands in French hands than Dutch
Military terms - clear cut argument, reasonable
Diplomatic terms - violation of Treaty of Ryswick and you cannot make peace by violating your own
commitment over and over
5. Violated the Spanish Will
Louis did not refuse Philip to the French throne naturally brought up ultimate unification in Europe
Louis understood the consequences
August 1701 - 1st declaration of new Spanish King - Grant the asiento - slavery (most lucrative deal)
Incredible economic bonanza for French p.57
Louis 25% shareholder
Every war Louis fought had to be terminated because France ran out of money
Now he has all the more reason to be able to outlast the enemies and WIN
Clear danger to European stability
English merchant and Dutch wanted to do business not war...but they are cut from the asiento
6. Louis recognize James III as King of England
IN PUBLIC to score points with Rome - New Pope
Demonstrate his status as a catholic since James is catholic
Louis knew France vs Austria was a given so he wanted to gain something
One of the greatest recognitions of the Treaty of Ryswick was William as King of England
Louis questions the protestant succession in England
Challenging stability, Europe creates a Grand Alliance to challenge France
Dutch, England, Austria, Germanic states, HRE
Leading States - England and Dutch goals
1. France and Spain must be separated (against hegemonic state)
2. All barrier fortresses must be returned to Dutch
3. Only after these 2 goals...GA thinks of compensating Leopold to maintain balance of power
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