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HIS103Y1 Lecture Notes - Italian Unification, Holy Alliance, Crimean War

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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HIS 103 Tutorial Questions
Napoleon III and the Wars of National Unification
1. How did the experience of the Crimean War change the major
European powers understanding of warfare and its role in international
Destroyed Vienna system…due to conservative parties
Quad alliance
Holy alliance
Russia = arbiter 1850 concern for B
Napoleon had to set B vs R via Otto
Give keys to holy places to F
No longer B R F problem, euro
Austria – bad eco, broken by revolution
Otto declare war vs R
R wipes out otto in black sea by fleet
March 1858 – B F war
R lose
2. Explain the process that led to Italian unification.
Oct 26, 1860 – Unify…Rome, Papacy, Venetia = outside control
Independency!! Try to take Venetia and Lombardi from Austria
Defeat = almost collapso
3. Of Cavour, Napoleon III, or Franz Joseph who was most responsible for
the unification of Italy?
Napoleon miscalculated but France got paid well in territorial gains…
alienated French allies, liberated Britain
4. Explain the significance of each of the three wars Prussia fought
between 1863 and 1871 for the unification of Germany.
1863 – Danish king Frederick VII dies
Bismark wanted Prussia to lead not revolutionists
5. Was German unification a victory of Bismarck’s use of force or his use
of diplomacy?
Diplomacy – Keep Germany in a majority = security
Isolate France =/ no ally no revenge
1873 3 Emperors’ League (G,R,A)
1879 Dual Alliance (G,A)
A, R opposed interests in Balkans
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