HIS103Y1 Lecture Notes - Barrier Treaty, Asiento, Unbridled
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Intro to History
- Huge Empires in 16th century essentially rendered international relations
useless. They did not require it.
- Will look at war ad its relation to international relations.
- 50%-60% of the male population 3000 BC died from combat or combat
20th Century? 2-3%!
- Will look at the foreign policies of the Great Powers (France, England,
Prussia) until the end of World War II .
- Will look at influential leaders.
On Statecraft & Strategy
The aim of state is for its OWN survival. (The Great Game)
The Aim of The
(Long Term Well
Otzi "The Ice Man"
The Soverign State
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How do state keep national interests?
- Diplomacy: 2 things needed. Either common interest or conflict. Why would they
be talking otherwise?
- Deterrence if diplomacy falls through.
-Threatening consequences. Must have gravitas to make threat seriously.
(Saddam Hussein in 1st Gulf War not taken seriously!)
-Must have a rational opponent.
- If deterrence does not work, coercive diplomacy can be used. (Light War)
(Americans failed using it prior to WWII against Japan)
-If none of this works….WAR!!!!
- War is not a guaranteed victory no matter how superior your forces are. (US in
- Components are often overlooked in war (Diplomatic, Culture, Religion,
- How does one ensure victory in nuclear war? (M.A.D)
- Great minds got together early 20th century to talk about how warfare would be
International institutions set up, only thing to work thus far.
Religious institutions actually created more divisions.
Organization of weapons didn’t work.
Every Major War must be concluded by a major peace treaty at a major conference.
Peace of Westphalia set precedence. – Jean Jaque Rousseau calls it one of the
greatest achievements of Europe.
Preceded by the 30 years war, in which a 1/3rd of the European population died.
- What caused this war?
Schism of the Church
Technological Revolution with usage of gunpowder.
Holy Roman Princes sided with Luther not due to religious reasons, but by political
Conflict started in 1680
- France shockingly joined Protestant side under the guide of Cardinal
Richelieu to protect French national interests
Treaty of Westphalia – Protestants and Catholics conducted their talks in separate
towns close to Westphalia.
- Huge gains for French. Had say in Germanic Politics
- Spaniards lost huge amounts. Lost Dutch.
- Holy Roman Emperor and Pope lost huge amounts, deemed it void.
- Birth of Secularization of politics.
- Separation of the Hapsburg branches.
- Embassies must be set up.
- Borders pinned down.
Birth of modern international relations.
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