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Lecture

3 - Napoleonic war.docx


Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
asasd

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The Napoleonic WarsHis241H1 9/18/2012 9:06:00 AM
Napoleon’s Takeover
Named himself First Consul—after taking over in a Coup d’état
o When he took power, he made a declaration to the French
Peoplethat the Revolution lives on through himthat he will
follow the guidelines, be true to the ideals of the revolution.
o Napoleon was the final stage of the revolution.
Fighting between left & right and in-fighting between
left radicals & moderists
Results of Revolution
o Abolition of Feudalism
o Rights of Man & Citizen
All men have the same rights as the king
o Created a new system and in doing so challenged Europe (as
it was still composed of ancient regimes)
o To have a new political system established in such a powerful
statewas not a good thing
Napoleonic FranceWho Was Napoleon?
Born in Corsica (island off of France in Mediterranean) bought by
France in 1769a lot of opposition in Corsica to French rule since
purchase.
o There is STILL resentment in Corsica to this day
After the revolution, napoleon joined the Corscican nationalists and
wanted to separate from France.
Things went south for the Corsicans so he joined the revolution
(Revolutionaries had the upper hand)
o Clear indication that he has no principlesonly joined the side
with the better odds.
Napoleon in France
Came to prominence in France, especially excelled in the Military
Academy.
o As a child, he was often ridiculed for his Corsican accent,
height and because of his original Italian name.

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o UNTIL he blew up the class one day as part of a chemical
experiment
By mid-20s he was a Major and offered his services to the French
revolution
First Assignment in Revolution: Free Toulon 1793
Naval base of the French Mediterranean fleet located in the South.
British & Spaniards seized the city during the First Coalitioncut off
resources from the Mediterranean.
o Also paralyzed the French navy
After two days of reconnaissance, Napoleon came up with a brilliant
planforcing the Brits & Spaniards out of the portby doing so, he
freed the French navy
This brought him to the attention of the French revolutionaries
Two years later, he offered to save the revolution by firing on the
French populationusing artillery (Grate shotlike a massive
shotgun)
o Came to the attention to the politicians as an indiscriminate
individual who would do everything to promote himself
Eventually his brilliance and unscrupulous activities brought him to
Prominence
Coup D’état—1799, 1801 & 1804
By 1799 he proved to be the only one of the revolutionary generals
who was willing to participate in the Coup detat against the
Directory
In doing so he overthrew the directory, formulated a consulate,
made himself the first consul and didn’t think of sharing power
despite there being two other consuls (3 consuls in a consulate)
He called the shots.
1801Napoleon named himself First Consul FOR LIFE
1804Declared himself Emperor of the Frenchbringing France
back to where it started before 1789
o One individual decided all affairs of the statelike a bourbon
monarch.

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How true was he to the ideals of the revolution: Libertie, Egalite
and Fraternite
Libertie (Liberty)
Freeing each man in Franceone of the most cherished goals of the
revolution
Napoleon said he supported this but was peeved by criticism. By
making choices & decisions by himself, he became a target of
criticism by the French Mediaespecially that of Paris.
When the Bourbon monarchy was overthrownParis became the
centre of the free worldand especially Freedom of speech as well
as Free opinion
No less than 74 newspapers were established in Paris (from all
areas of the political spectrum)
They had the freedom to look at the Rights of Man & Citizen
o Second article promises to safeguard liberty (freedom of
liberty, thought, speech)
o Key principle of French revolution
Napoleon didn’t like criticism
Within a year, he reintroduced Censorship
They not only censored newspapers but theatre, movies, etc.
o Censored anything that could be produced under the
freedoms of thought, expression, speech, opinion.
Thereafter, by 180260/74 newspapers were prohibited and
shutdown
By the time he declared himself Emperor, only 4 newspapers
remained
Freedom of Speech was eliminated
France was also organized as a state with provincesbut napoleon
created 83 departments
o Each department was run by a prefect personally appointed
by napoleon and personally responsible only to Napoleon
himself.
o New state resembled the absolutist monarchy than free
society
Freedom of thought
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