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Lecture 17

HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Gangrene, Louis Pasteur, Wilhelm Wundt

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Anthony Cantor

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Intellectuals in Europe
1. Challenge by science
a. Challenge to dominant beliefs
b. Challenge to the existing world view and human self-perception
2. Positivism
a. Aka realism
b. Creation of middle class
c. Created by French philosopher auguste comte
d. Science is the development force of human development
e. Believe in scientific approach to all human problems
f. Believe in sceine to measure human behaviours etc
i. Use principle
g. Groundwork or Grassroots: work with lower social classes to help
them what is the world
i. Intellectuals try to educate peasants and build education in
h. Issue of nationalism : try to understand the world
i. If embrace peasantry it brings negativity
1. Xenophobia, closeness and hater toward new and
foreign ideas
2. Not all traditions are nice
i. Problem about the peasantry
i. If apply scientific research around everything and explain
everything can be dangerous
1. Might be too much for society to be bared
2. If throw too much onto people it will bring
psychological problems [ system overload]
j. Sociology Auguste Comte
i. The accumulation of hard facts and their quantification would
eventually produce positive results for society
ii. It is hard for them to strive because of
iii. Human is a subject to scientific investigation
3. Evolution and Geology
a. Theory of evolution [ not new]
i. The grand father of Erasmusu Darwin Struggle for existence
by animals
ii. Lamarck- began with simple organisms [ Earth cannot be 600
years old ] the bible confirm the fossils in the museum
iii. Lyell- principles of Geology [ scince of modern Geology]
b. Charles Darwin
i. Humble
ii. Had bad reputation
iii. Five years journey to south America to study spices
iv. He believed that spices are evolving and write Orgins of
1. Provide a fixed framework about evolution
2. Easy to accept by scientific communication
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