HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Belgian Revolution, Luddite, Water Frame

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Published on 24 Oct 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS241H1
<<Lecture 8 .wma>>
Audio recording started: 10:11 AM Thursday, October 3, 2013
Lecture 8 - Industrial Revolution
Thursday, October 3, 2013
7:16 AM
Most of the revolutions in the 30s were crushed and defeated. Pretty much terminated. The sole
revolution was the French Revolution and the Belgian Revolution.
The Belgians succeeded on the grounds of international intervention. The support of the great
powers for Belgian independence was to prevent the unification between France and Belgium.
Otherwise, it is likely the Dutch would have rolled over the Belgians and reacquired their territory.
Industrial/Economic Revolutions were ongoing for half a century and was consequential for
European relations. Political life and more so everyday life after the revolution would never be the
same in Europe.
On a micro level --> throughout the previous centuries, the overwhelming majority of the
population did not wear underwear. They could not purchase underwear as the materials required
to make them were made of materials hey could not purchase. Even the middle class could not
afford it. What remained cheap and available was not suitable for underwear.
Come the second and third decade most people could afford purchasing cotton underwear and it
became a common practice.
On a macro level, a state's survival depended on industrialization. In mid 19th century there was a
major clash between liberal states, France and Britain, against the absolutist Russia. The Liberal
states were able to defeat Russia due to their steam powered ships and their industrialization.
The 'Other' Revolution
Industrial Change
In Europe there was no industry to speak of, there were artisans specializing in a specific trade.
Industrial life was very local and cellular. A crafts guilds would have a monopoly over a
region/district or state. They would determine who would join that craft. This monopolistic
system gave the guilds control over production, scale and scope of it, and they could also control
the profits. These crafts were limited production, high quality, high profit but limited entry into
the production of that craft. Since the roman times this had not changed.
This all came to an end towards the end of the 18th century. For the first time a change in
technology, produced steam power, steam engines and resulted in "mass" production. This
revolution in technology in cotton (textile industry), a British inventor produced the first multiple
spindle that increased production 8 times. Two years later they produced the water frame, that
increased quality. This was turned into the mule that increased the production and quality
resulting in 300 times the manufacturing output.
The production of steam engines multiplied output from manufacturing 3000 times. This caused
the price of cotton to fall and made it accessible to the masses.
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Document Summary

Audio recording started: 10:11 am thursday, october 3, 2013. Most of the revolutions in the 30s were crushed and defeated. The sole revolution was the french revolution and the belgian revolution. The belgians succeeded on the grounds of international intervention. The support of the great powers for belgian independence was to prevent the unification between france and belgium. Otherwise, it is likely the dutch would have rolled over the belgians and reacquired their territory. Industrial/economic revolutions were ongoing for half a century and was consequential for. Political life and more so everyday life after the revolution would never be the same in europe. On a micro level --> throughout the previous centuries, the overwhelming majority of the population did not wear underwear. They could not purchase underwear as the materials required to make them were made of materials hey could not purchase. Even the middle class could not afford it. What remained cheap and available was not suitable for underwear.

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