HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Young Europe, Industrial Revolution, Gangrene

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Published on 24 Oct 2013
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Audio recording started: 10:11 AM Tuesday, October 8, 2013
Lecture 9 - The Gathering Strom
Tuesday, October 8, 2013
10:08 AM
The Impact of the French, Industrial and Demographic Revolutions
The Ideological Legacy
There was a dramatic growth of both ideologies in the mid 19th centuries. By the late 1840s, the
entire continent faced some sort of upheaval based on either nationalism or liberalism.
Beforehand, both had only been supported by the minority intellectuals, but not they were being
supported by a large portion of the population class.
Nationalism and Liberalism became widespead ideologies in Europe because Napoleon conquered
a majority of Europe.
o Ever since there was political life, the bargaining between social classes, liberalism was
undestood as the presevation of inidividual rights and freedoms.
o Thereafter, an argument and debate, a striving for political power ought to happen. Each
individual had to be somehow represented in the parliament.
o Most importantly this idea was supported and accepted by the middle class. They sought to
achieve greater power.
o The greatest beneficiary of the industrial revolution, the middle class, were able to push
forth liberalism.
o Laise-a-faire took precedent in England, somewhat in France, and challenged the political
elites of the Eastern European states.
o The further east you went, the less the continent was industrialized, laise-a-faire
accompanied libearlism.
o When you look at the french revoluton of 1789 and the opposition to it, a German poet
Goet stated that "a new era was beginning in history." From this revolution, the greatest
beneficiaries were the bourgeois, the middle class.
o Metternich responded to this revolution stating that "Liberalism is a moral gangrene!"
Threatening the political stability of Europe.
o The French themselves pushed forth nationalism. The revolutionnary army instituted the
Leveee en Masse in 1793, called for everyone to identify themseleves as a member of the
French state and to defend their territory. The army grew to 750 000, and conquered a
majority of Europe.
o They spread throughout Europe and 'freed' the subjugated people under the premise of
Liberalism. However, the French were undone by their own push of nationalism, the
absolutist monarchies used the threat of the French rather than liberalism.
o Just as important, the most absolutist king, Tsar Alexander, played the natonalist card and
identified the French as invaders and by so doing invoked a natiaonlist ferver in Russia. The
entire war was presented as a patriotic war.
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