HIS241H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Habsburg Monarchy, Meritocracy

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24 May 2018
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Napoleonic France
enseignment regime was gone
revolution based on human rights in France (french rev)
continuation of revolution was napoleon (I am the revolution) - Napoleon
no change between revolutionary period and his reign
from 83 depart he made 130 depart,
he opened up the first national bank in France,
France always struggled with finances, richer than Britain etc but never have enough
money
British were better because they had a national bank now napoleon copied that
borrowing from bank rather than from individuals, the bank had to have set rates etc not
like individuals
brought financial stability
napoleon took specific care to french society, rights of peasants and continuing of getting
rid of feudalism and looking into the interests of middle class (bourgeois)
they got many privileges, they got the right to vote,
universal manhood suffrage - everyone could vote
instead of universal it was only limited to people who could pay more, brought
down universal suffrage
Napoleon kept it bc it let only the richest of the middle class to cast a vote
Three objectives of the the revolution
liberte (freedom to all french men)
egalite (how equal did french men become under the revolution)
fraternite
Making french men brothers of one another, he introduced a civil code (for the
entire of enseignment regime, france didn't have one single rule of law, it was a
patchwork of number of legal precedents, practice of old roman laws, provincial
laws and customary laws and under this system it was hard for anyone to succeed
anywhere else)
nap unified the code and brought in one single rule of law
it made it easier for french men etc
this allowed them to settle do business anywhere,
positive development (making one single rule of law)
tried to settle differences with the church
he signed concordat (1801), a understanding with pop pious the seventh
he didn't really care about religion in the beginning
the revolution lashed out against the church
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he made deal with church, the rome vatican not bc he cared but because by
establishing understanding he eliminated civil war in France
tens of thousand of peasants opposed the revolution bc of its treatment of the
church
peasants was a conservative social group and they really likes religion
the agreement was advantageous to the state
the church could never demand back what they lost (ensuring what the middle
class gained through the revolution)
the priests would have to spare loyalty to the state
civil rights were given back to the church
religious tolerance
allowed free practice of religion
(protestants and jewish minority)
introduced the code napoleonic
legal transformation of the state
they not only had one legal system
but it also applied to civil life and commerce, family and in european white
context, any land that was taken under french control would use the same legal
system
reason /root of how he did this,
he found family as critical, if family life is stable then social life would
what would bring stability to the family, not withstanding equality (gender
equality wasn't a thing),
he had the most support from middle class
criminal code - two kinds of crimes
real crime - murder, thievery, muggings, fraud, abuse of system punished
according to the law
phony crime - anything related to religion, didnt want to challenge Rome
or undermine the church, (superstition, witchcraft, sacrilege, blasphemy) -
useless didn't matter to the state and this was something prevalent during
the enseignment regime
declared that every accused has a right for legal representation (napoleon
introduced this),
and for poor the state would have to pay for legal representation
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