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Lecture

German Unification


Department
History
Course Code
HIS241H1
Professor
Dana Philpott

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Nov.5/09
-Napoleon III managed to shut-up the French nationalists
-just as he enlarged France, there was an economic depression and the liberals
who would have accepted Napoleon turned against him and became supporters
of the left
The German Unification
-Wilhelm, liberal monarch; agreed to support parliament
-constitutional crisis in Prussia; Wilhelm not able to solve Crisis, appointed a
minister: Bismarck, who turned out to be one of the best chancellors
-he set a precedent and a symbol for international relations and affairs
-Bismarck did not only want to settle the score, but sought a German unification,
outmanoeuvre Austria
-Napoleon III came to the aid of Bismarck
-Bismarck more intellectual than Napoleon and outplayed him
-1859, Bismarck and Napoleon crossed paths, Napoleon said “the tall German is
insignificant
-following that Bismarck said Napoleon is a sphinx without a riddle (a beast that
no-one ever knows what is thinking)
-Bismarck completely ignored parliament in constitutional crisis
Denmark
-1863: new Danish king decided to score some northern German territory, which
upset the German nationalists
-Bismarck, knowing that Austria and Prussia struggle for leadership for German
confederation, offered Austrians co-operation, in order to prevent the Danes from
taking over the Duchies
-Prussians could not act alone, Austrians didnt want to fight, but Prussians
couldnt act alone so they all fought
-Austrians wanted to bring in Duchies as independent members of German
confederation
-July 1866 deal with Austrians: if Austria were to defeat Prussia, for French
neutrality France will be rewarded with new territory
-Bismarck also approached Italians that if they declare war against Austria, the
fight will not end until Venetia is given over to Italians
-Bismarck did not really count them as a military power, he just wanted to make
sure Austrian army was divided
-1866 Austrians crushed against Prussians
-Prussia managed to gain control of northern German confederation
-Venetia was given to Italians (even though they were defeated by the Austrians)
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