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Lecture

lecture 1-2


Department
History
Course Code
HIS242H1
Professor
Michael Kogan

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His242 Lecture ONE
Pre-WWI Social, Ideological, and Political Trends
21/07/2011 15:21:00
Who made up European society and their dominant beliefs, and how they lived?
World fair, Europe never reached the height that they reached before WWI, loses
its luster as of this point
Europe in !914
Ottoman empire, Russian, austro hugarian and german empire along with france
and GB were the dominant powers in Europe
Europe would never again after the great war come to the height of its power that
it achieved than
In 1914 25% of the worlds pop was in Europe, this number never got higher even
today, this was during a time when over a million people where leaving Europe to
immigrate to Canada and other places
Economically by 1914, 56% of the world coal was produced by Europe, produced
60% of the worlds iron and steel and 62% of the worlds export
Europe was the centre of the economic world and London was the economic
capital of Europe. Dominant and Largest free trade system that imported and exported
all over the world
83% of forgein investment formed Europe
Social Trends: Urbanization
growth and concentration of increase efficiency
Europe was the most urban continent in the world
boasted 120 cities with over 100,00 ppl and 6 cities with over a million people
slums and squalor came from urbanization, place where u were lonely came from
the countryside where u were with your family to living alone
also had long hours in factories doing repetitive work
cities known as places of moral decadence, b/c people lost there morals when
they came to the city
however paid more than agricultural work and exposed you to culture
Karl Marx “what the bourgeoisie produces above all are its own grave diggers”
they bring workers together in urban centers, by bringing workers together they
create there own demise
Rural life
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Elite dominance, especially true in eastern Europe where in Russia nobles
owned 14% of the land after decades
East and south vs western big difference between the three
Poorly developed 1/3 Russian peasants didnt have steel plows and left lots of
land fallow and unused
German peasants produced 8.5 compared to what the Russian peasants
produced
In the countryside peasants lived on subsistence agriculture
Peasants often left for greater opportunities, but would return for seasonal
harvests but would create tensions within families b/c of the trends they picked up
This was especially hard for woman who when they returned were though of
sexually loose which wasnt allowed
Social Stratification
Importance of social hierarchy, more pronounced in eastern Europe than in
western Europe, where they were less divided
In W.europe there was more social mobility
Markers of class statues, poor woman often wore plain black dresses and men
wore bares instead of tophats of the wealthy, if you where tanned in signified that you
were a worker in the fields
Classes of European Society: wealthy
Aristocracy
Aristrocrats were nobles with large plots of land but many where sliding in the
status but had the name and reputations
In Prussia the aristocrats where well ingrained in the governments and public
office but this was less in Italy and france but still had large influence
Upper middle class fortunes where sometimes larger than nobles but lacked the
titles and heritage that the nobles had
they would marry their daughters to aristocrats to get their tities
Middle class
Middle class were ppl who where shopkeepers, skilled workers or other
professional workers
Only 20% of pop was solidly middle class in Europe
Individuals often dies in the same station they were born in
Woking class : The poor
Maj of Europes pop were poor in 1914
Were earning slightly more than they needed to survive
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These earning allowed for worker to double their purchasing power, workers
were now buying meat along with their bread and potatoes
1/3 of Englands pop was living in poverty in the worlds richest country in the
world, they slept in there own clothes for warmth
conditions were much worse elsewhere outside of England
life expantancy outside of Europe for workers was only 35 years
welfare measure came out in the 1800 and early 1900s (Germany was the first)
Workers became a major force in European politics introduced labour unions
Women in European Society
Suffrage movement
Began the fight for the right to vote and in the late 1900”s this movement really
became active
Wasnt universal male suffrage and women couldnt vote anywhere
Women were also barred from getting university education in Europe
The upper class and middle class women were interested in political rights
But working class women were interested in labor unions, to make it safer and
decrease working hours
Working class women were employed in textile factories, household employment
or restaurants
In the early 2oth century there was a trend of having fewer children and there
was a drop in birth rates as better healthcare came about
more infants survived as well as the elderly were starting to be taken care of,
and deaths rates dropped
people had fewer children to ensure middle class status,
children could not work in factories because of children labour laws
it was mandatory to send your children to primary school at least
ppl had children earlier in life
women wouldnt die shortly after birth
people had longer life and would have fewer children so they could save money
Political and Ideological currents
Liberalism
Legacy of French Revolution
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