HIS242H1 - The Russian Revolution and Civil War - 29-01-13.docx
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HIS242H1 29 January 2013
The Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917-1921)
Crisis of “Dual Power”
Civil War and “War Communism”
Victory and Retreat
Prelude to February, 1917
Nicholas II: Was incompetent, went to the front but showed his incompetence and
Russia: Was a highly fractured country going into World War 1.
There were major strikes in Russia that frizzled out after the war.
February 22-27 (Old Calendar)
International Women’s Day (Feb 23) Protest
200,000 people in 1 state protesting this regime.
Feb 26, members of the Petrogad gerison began to mutiny. This was the beginning
on the end.
March 1: Tsar wanted to leave the throne to his brother. His brother was afraid that
his family would be in danger. The Tsar abdicates
DUAL POWER, PART ONE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
Pavel Miliukov (Liberal)
Alexander Kerenski (Moderate Socialist) – agreed to let out political dissidence,
Goal – Make sure Russia stays in the war
Then the thought of a constituent assembly which would form a lasting government
2nd Part: Petrograd Societ
Soviet = council of workers and soldiers deputies who represent the real force
behince the revolution
Most important of the soviets made up of moderate socialist – Marxists
DUAL POWER PART PETROGRAD
Vlademir IL’ich (Ulianov) Lenin
HIS242H1 29 January 2013
- Peace, bread, land
Radical Social Democrats
- Marxism in a peasant country
APRIL CRISIS AND BREAKDOWN OF LAW AND ORDER
- Declaration of War Aims”
- “Miliukov Note” – sent a note to the other powers saying we want access to
Mediterranean. What he did know was the people that worked in that office
were socialist and released the note.
Peasant land seizures
Worker’s control – In factories, there was violence against managers with workers
trying to take control of the factories.
“Order No. 1” – Soldiers undermined officers. Essentially what it said is officers have
control in battle. Outside of that soldiers may have their own will.
Kerenski became the leading figurein the provincial government.
He ordered offensive in june, thinking this would start patriotism
Russian army turns back and there are huge protests of this offensive.
The “July Days” failed. The protest was that all power goes to the Societs.
Bolsheviks aren’t sure they want to seize power yet. They enforced these protests in
July but not entirely.
Korentadt Sailors – huge force behind them
July days failed because Bolsheviks and soldiers didn’t want to take power. The
prov. Govt. states Lenin was a traitor and a friend to the Germans. Bolsheviks are
General Lavr Kornilov – Conservative power
Kerenski made him a commander and chief of the army.
Agusust 1917 right-wing coup attempt
Bolsheviks is triumphant
PREPPING THE REVOLUTION
In October Bolsheviks comes back
- Leon (Lev) Trotskii
- In October 10-11 jhe holds a meting with the rest. He wants the meeting for
the communist party from all the states coming from congress would be
perfect for the revolution
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- Lenin (Still in hiding) says “Revolution now” because of the congress of the
- Provincial Gov’t talked about sending the Petrograd Garrison to the front and
replacing them as a force of law and order with other soldiers.
Oct 8-16 – Trotskii forms Military Revolutionary Committee
Oct 22-23 – Trotskii sent out units to Petrograd Garrison
They seize railways, bridges etcOctober 25 – They seize the Winter Palace where
prov. Gov’t are and arrest ministers. Kerenskii flees the city
OUTCOME OF THE REVOLUTION
bolsheviks form executive “council of people’s commisars”
over protest of moderate
lenin proclaims victory of the revolution
FIRST STEPS OF THE REGIME
Land: Decree on Land
- Immediate after revolution
Peace: Brest- Litovsk
- March 1918
Break: More difficult – Fundamental difference getting bread from peasants to
OBSTACLES FOR NEW REGIME, PART 1
Civil Wars – multiple fronts, multiple enemies, main enemies in the south
- Volunteer Army
- The world is angry at the Bolsheviks. They have gotten out of the war and
they keep saying there is going to be a world revolution.
Intervention – UK, France, Japan, USA, German, Czechs
- Constituent assembly
- Bolsheviks keep saying there is going to be “Dictatorship of the proletariat:
- Realise it is not a way to run a country, especially with being at war with
- Gain requisitions – difficult because it does not seem like the powers are
fighting for the people. So they are not in full support
- “Bagmen” how do they deal with these problems, political, social etc
Nicholas ii: was incompetent, went to the front but showed his incompetence and weakness. Russia: was a highly fractured country going into world war 1. There were major strikes in russia that frizzled out after the war. 200,000 people in 1 state protesting this regime. Feb 26, members of the petrogad gerison began to mutiny. March 1: tsar wanted to leave the throne to his brother. His brother was afraid that his family would be in danger. Alexander kerenski (moderate socialist) agreed to let out political dissidence, former lawyer. Goal make sure russia stays in the war. Then the thought of a constituent assembly which would form a lasting government. Soviet = council of workers and soldiers deputies who represent the real force behince the revolution. Most important of the soviets made up of moderate socialist marxists. April crisis and breakdown of law and order. Miliukov note sent a note to the other powers saying we want access to.