HIS242H1 Lecture Notes - Petrograd Soviet, E. H. Carr, Alexander Kerensky

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS242H1
Page:
of 2
Russian Revo Cont/ End of WW1
- Lenin @ Petrograd- April Theses- called for; Peace, Land, Bread. Nationalize land and give power
to the soviets
- Provisional Government does not begin land reform (fear that peasants will leave the front and
the Russian army will collapse)
- May- dual power attempts a coalition but the government is ineffective (discredits liberals and
moderate socialists). Local soviets continue to form “All Russia Soviet”
- Petrograd Soviet- claims to speak for socialism. Differentiations between moderates and radicals
in the soviet grows and Bolshevik membership increases.
- June- workers, soldiers and sailors march in Petrograd “All power to Soviets!”
- July 3rd- mass demonstration. Kerensky calls for a crackdown, many are killed and Bolsheviks are
arrested, Lenin flees.
- Military plans a coup d’état against the government. Kornilov plans a march against the
government but this initiative is put down by Kerensky and others
- Aug 31- Bolsheviks are the majority in the Petrograd Soviet- Lenin arrives from Finland to seize
power
- September- Lenin convinces the 12 member Soviet Head Committee (10-2 vote) to takeover
- Oct 12- Soviet creates a military committee headed by Trotsky (who is also the Petrograd Soviet
chairman)
- Oct 24- Bolsheviks seize post offices, communications and banks
- Oct 25- Kerensky is arrested and power is seized (initial takeover is not especially violent)
- Seizure of Power- EH Carr- “Bolshevism seized an empty throne”…power vacuum
- Bolsheviks attempt to change society from the top down
- Promises of peace, land, bread and elections held for a constituent assembly
- Vote comes; Bolsheviks receive 20% of vote, Social Democrats 40% and the assembly sits only
once on Jan 5, 1918. Red Sailors break up the assembly, never meets again
- “breathtaking speed of change”- industry is nationalized, party’s banned, people are
imprisoned, chaos and confusion is prevelant
- Civil War- Red v. White (monarchists, Allied backed). Spins out of ww1. Atrocities are present on
both sides and famine becomes widespread. Villages are wiped out, crops burned, livestock
killed
- Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Mar 1918- Peace with Germany (central powers)
- Russia loses; Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine to Germany (32% of agricultural land, 34% of
population, 54% of industry)Punitive Peace
- Lenin demands that the Bolsheviks accept the terms so the revolution will have time to develop
(previously they were declined and Russia was routed further militarily)
- German Pre-War Aims- France(for industry), Belgium (coal), Italy, Norway, Sweden, Holland,
Balkans, Greece, Turkey, Denmark, Belgium, Poland, Ukraine (last 2 being states under German
supervision)
- After Brest-Litovsk (Germany has won the East) Germany regroups for a western offensive
Ludendorff Offensive- initial success but slowed and stopped by French defenses, stalemate-
war stalled
- Allied troops along with the US and 400 tanks break German lines and in 2 days 20,000 are killed
and 30,000 surrender (full retreat)
- Germany seeks an armistice on the basis of the 14 Points
- Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points; advocated peace since 1916. Points were a liberal vision; based on
free trade, economic diplomacy, autonomy
- 1) Open Covenants of Peace (no secret treaties)
- 2) free navigation on the seas
- 3) removal of economic barriers
- 4) disarmament
- 5) colonial self determination
- 6) restoration of Belgium
- 10) division of Aust/Hung
- 13) independent Poland
- Paris Peace Conference- Nov 11, 1918- armistice
- Conference convenes January to June in the interest of creating new states
- GB, FRA, US, ITA lead (Council of 4). Russia not present
- Ideal of self determination (vague term)
- New states are crafted out of old empires along historical lines
-

Document Summary

Lenin @ petrograd- april theses- called for; peace, land, bread. Nationalize land and give power to the soviets. Provisional government does not begin land reform (fear that peasants will leave the front and the russian army will collapse) May- dual power attempts a coalition but the government is ineffective (discredits liberals and moderate socialists). Local soviets continue to form all russia soviet . Differentiations between moderates and radicals in the soviet grows and bolshevik membership increases. June- workers, soldiers and sailors march in petrograd all power to soviets! . Kerensky calls for a crackdown, many are killed and bolsheviks are arrested, lenin flees. Military plans a coup d" tat against the government. Kornilov plans a march against the government but this initiative is put down by kerensky and others. Aug 31- bolsheviks are the majority in the petrograd soviet- lenin arrives from finland to seize power. September- lenin convinces the 12 member soviet head committee (10-2 vote) to takeover.