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Lecture

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS244H1
Professor
mc

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Merr iman 155-161
THE WARS OF RELIGION
The Danish Period
Christian IV ruled from 1588-16 48 and was Protestant
In 1625 Fredericks troops were into northern german states and hoped that English, Dutch, and Fench
would rish to help to fight against the Habsburgs
But England and the neterherlands only sent some money and a few thousand soldiers to help the Danish
King
Louis XIII of France also only sent modest help to help the Danes fight against the Habsburgs
Albercht Wallenstein(1583- 1634)
Was Bohemian
After mar rying a wealthy widow he rose to even greater for tune as a supplier of armeries
He converted to Catholcism at age twenty and became t he most powerful of Cathoilc generals
He was ambitious, rut hless, and had a violent temper
He hated the sound of noise and would sometimes order the killing of all dogs and cats upon ar riving i n a
town because he couldnt stand the noises they made
Because of his deteste of noise he also ordered his soildiers that t hey were not allowed to wear heavy boots
He was entrusted by Ferdinand and marched nor t h wit h 30,000 men
War
The Catholic army defeated the Danes in 1626 and t hen crossed into Denmark and devastated the penisula
of Jutland
Wallenstenis troops devastated t he lands of both friends and enemies and took money and food
They also sold military leadership positions to any buyer, including criminals
Christian bankrupted his kingdom and signed the Treaty of Lubeck in 1629 and withdrew from the war and
gave up his claims to northern Germany
Ferdinand II expelled from Bohemia Calvini st and Lutheran ministers and nobles who refused to convert to
Catholicism and ennobled new man including many who were forgeriners inorder to ensure Catholic
domination
Ferdinand also took away any property of nobles who were suspected in parti cipating in the Protestant
Rebellion
Ferdidnand found that it was not easy to impose Catholicism in terr iotri es where it had not been practised
for decades
Half of the par ishes in Bohemia were without clergy
The Edict of Restituion(1629)=allowed Lutherans who were small in number to go to German states except
in Palatinate to practise their religions but they had to return to the Catholic Church all monasteri es and
convenants acquired since 1552
But because the Edict of Restitution also gave rulers the r ight to enforce their religion on others the war
continued
The Swedish Interlude
England, the Dutch Republic and the nor thern German states of Bradenburgm and the Palatinate asked the
Lutheran king Gustavus Aldolphus(1611-1632=rule) of Sweden to intervene on the side of the
Protestants
Gustavus was called theLion of t he North” and had sur vived a shipwreck when he was five years old and
had been tortured by mercanry soldiers
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