18th Century States and Wars

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17 Feb 2011
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HIS244 Eighteenth Century States and WarsThursday February 17th
2011
Parts on the reform movements of the 1760s will not be on the test
The parts on the partitions of Poland will be fair game
Lecture outline
The succession in the British Isles
England to Great Britain
Wars and the balance of power
Partitions of Poland
The wars of the end of the 17
th century were about checking balance of power, trade
disputes, etc.
The ability to finance wars was at the heart of British success
Constant theme of the 18
th century is the rivalry between France and Britain (both
colonially and continentally)
After the Glorious Revolution
William III and Mary II accept the Bill of Rights
William actually wanted more power than the British crown traditionally enjoyed,
but William was more focused on wars
Because he needed money to pay for the wars, Parliament will sit every year
(because it held the purse strings)
Parliament deliberately underfunded William
What will change: instead of war being in the sole province of the king/queen, it will
gain guaranteed funding for the first time in British history
William and Mary come to power with echoes of the Glorious Revolution (problems
in North America, Ireland, and Scotland)
Mary dies in 1694 and there is a problem: William, Dutch, is ruling England solely
The Succession in the 3 Kingdoms
William has problems in Ireland
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HIS244 Eighteenth Century States and WarsThursday February 17
th
2011
He takes his army there
Battle of the Boyne - July 12
th 1690
Wales: no one really cares about Wales
James ran away to France (Catholic) and Louis doesnt support or recognize
William/Mary and thus supports James
James supporters were called Jacobites
To invade England, Wales would be a good doorway
Two Jacobite risings
Second protestant daughter of James, Anne, comes to the throne when William dies
Queen Anne had 16 children but none survived infancy, no heirs
1701 Act of something which states that heirs to the British throne had to be
Anglican, not Catholic
The problem was that Anne had no legitimate heir and her closest heir would be her
half-brother, the Catholic
They end up going to the man who is 52
nd in line to the throne
The problem with those 51 others was that they were Catholic
This was unsettling to people in England, Scotland, and Ireland
George is the elector of Hanover and comes to England, hates it, never learns
English, very grumpy about it
His son, George II is also grumpy about it
It wasnt until George III that well have another truly English king
1715, the year after Anne dies, there is a Jacobite rising because of George I taking
the throne
Second rising in 1745, after which Jacobitism goes underground
Important in terms of diplomacy recognizing the Hanoverian succession
England to Great Britain
Financial revolution and the creation of a fiscal-military state
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Thursday february 17th: parts on the reform movements of the 1760s will not be on the test, the parts on the partitions of poland will be fair game. The wars of the end of the 17th century were about checking balance of power, trade disputes, etc. The ability to finance wars was at the heart of british success.  constant theme of the 18th century is the rivalry between france and britain (both colonially and continentally)  william iii and mary ii accept the bill of rights.  william actually wanted more power than the british crown traditionally enjoyed, but william was more focused on wars.  because he needed money to pay for the wars, parliament will sit every year (because it held the purse strings)  what will change: instead of war being in the sole province of the king/queen, it will gain guaranteed funding for the first time in british history.

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