Class Notes (866,995)
CA (523,442)
UTSG (45,344)
HIS (3,362)
HIS271Y1 (258)
Erin Black (183)

Building the New Republic.docx

12 Pages

Course Code
Erin Black

This preview shows pages 1-2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 12 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade. are saying about us

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Building the New Republic: America’s First Twenty- Five Years 10/12/2011 2:08:00 PM I. A Rocky Start  Reason: o When independence was declared the 13 states met to create the articles of confederation  Drafted 1777  Ratified 5 years later o Articles didn’t set up any real central authority  Only gave the central government right to enter war and treaties, and regulate trade (not through the imposition of taxes) and postal services o Was only a united states in name only, not in practice  Each state was its own individual power o Distrusted strong central government as a result of the king of England  Weakness of articles of confederation o Western frontier lands  Most states had claims to the west of their actual boundaries  There were many conflicts in these boundaries  Idea came about that all of this land be turned over to the new government  Ended up holding up the ratification of the articles of confederation  Land doesn’t go directly to the national government but is ceded by the states  The fight over land shows the first weakness of the confederation o Debts  The congress is incapable of paying off its debts  To pay for the war they had borrowed money from france and had started printing its own money which devalued its dollar  As a result of the articles of confederation, it is not able to tax the people, preventing congress from paying off that debt o Unstable Boundaries with Britain and Spain  Spain initially refused to accept the previously stated boundaries, and then Spain closes the Mississippi river to the Americans  Spain and Britain showed no respect to the new united states  Viewed them as the disunited states  Saw the weakness in the congress  Impetus for Change o Shay’s Rebellion  Source directly ties to the weakness of the national congress under the articles of confederation  Since the congress couldn’t directly tax the people, it turned to its states to tax their people  Massachusetts  Had no problem raising taxes  Legislature required hard currency  Large amount of population didn’t have access to hard currency  Result was that large amounts of people (commonly farmers) were sent to jail for failure to pay taxes  Daniel Shay  Petitioned that paper money should be accepted  Rebellion  Marched on the states congress in order to protest the increased taxes and demand for hard money  Congress fears what’s happening  Tries to increase the size of the continental army  Receives no help  Governor of Massachusetts raises his own private army to put down the rebellion  Shows the weakness of the government to be able to raise their own army  As a result James Madison brings about another conference to discuss the articles of confederation  Philadelphia 1787  Goal was to revise the articles of confederation  Instead throws out the articles of confederation and the constitution is born II. Creating the constitution  The Philadelphia convention, 1787 o 2/3 were lawyers o many served in the national congress o many served in the continental army during the revolution o decided to meet in secrecy, closed session  allow the delegates to explore options without fear of persecution o Delegates were a variety of people with incredibly varied views o Virginia Plan (James Madison)  Didn’t want to bother working with the articles of confederation but make something new  Wanted a new vision for the united states  Wanted a 3 branch bicameral system  Representation in both houses would be based on population  Clear break from articles of confederation  In the articles all states, regardless of population had the same amount of votes  Smaller states opposed this plan, due to losing seats in the house o New Jersey Plan  New Jersey, Delaware, New Hampshire  Call for keeping the existing single chamber congress  Suggested they alter the powers granted to the existing systems  Ability to tax and use force for example o Both plans are debated with a focus on representation o Compromise  Kept with the idea of the 3 branches of government  Upper house: Senate would have equal representation (2) no matter the size of the state  Lower house: House of Representatives would be based on population  The Vision of Government o Legislative Branch (Congress)  Senate have 2 representative per state  House of representatives are based on population  Brought about question of who counts as people  Are slaves people or property?  3/5 clause  all other persons count as 3/5 of a person  smaller states wanted them to count as property not persons in order to increase the property tax burden on the slave holding states  the large slave holding states wanted them to count as people in order to increase their population  Senators  Are not originally elected by the population but appointed by the state legislature  Later changed in 1912  The new congress has much more power then the old congress  Taxation  Borrow money  pay off debts  ability to regulate interstate commerce  regulate international commerce  power to call forth a military  right to declare war on another nation  right to support armies and navy and their rules  elastic clause  make laws that are necessary and proper  ex: congress has the right to legislate the American economy  unstated yet state declaration  gives congress ability to do whatever it needs to do o Executive Branch (President)  4 year terms  in the creation there is no limit on how many terms  ability to appoint his own cabinet  must do so with the approval and consent of the senate  commander and chief of the American military but does not have the right to declare war  can negotiate treaties with other countries, but treaties must then go to the senate  veto  can refuse any laws passed by congress  congress can veto his veto with a 2/3 vote  impeachment  treason, high crimes, or misdemeanor  house of representatives must vote in majority  senate puts the president on trial with the chief justice of the supreme court as the judge  been activated 3 times  1860’s Andrew Johnson o failed by 1 vote  Richard Nixon o Nixon resigned before impeachment  Clinton  Election  Chosen by electors that make up the electoral
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1-2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.