HIS271Y1 Lecture Notes - East India Company, Individualism, Weroance

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS271Y1
Professor
Lecture 2
I. Motivations for Colonization
1. National rivalries. For example, England and Spain. While previously allies, the
relationship changed by the 1580s as they entered into war with each other.
Establishing colonies in North America therefore became a competitive aspect
to damage the other countries.
2. Religion. European-wide difficulties between Protestants and Catholics meant
an additional aspect of competition - converting Natives.
3. Economic need. The source of England's economic stability collapsed in the
mid 1560s, when their main export of selling wool and cloth to Antwerp tailors
collapsed. They therefore started forming trading companies (East India
Trading Company) who went in search of other markets. This helped force the
English to become more of a seafaring nation.
4. Population pressure. Between 1500 and 1650, the population of England and
Wales grew by 2 million.
Collectively, these aspects convinced the monarchy to establish permanent
settlements in the 'New World'. The lack of financing for the English monarchy was
problematic, however. The solution was to subcontract colonization by allowing
monopolies to private companies and adventurers. They were therefore financing
expedition in the name of the crown, but not funded by the crown.
II. Jamestown (Virginia & the Chesapeake)
This was the first successful colony. In the 1580s, the English had tried to establish
colonies in the islands off the coast of Virginia, but these failed in a matter of months.
Jamestown was founded in 1607, by the joint-venture Virginia Company. The first
few months were rocky. More than 3/4 of the original settlers died of malaria, along
with their lack of resources - they expected to receive food from the Natives. Most
colonists were lazy or were shipped to North America against their will.
Their survival was due to a chief named Powhatan, an Algonquian. He hoped that
he could contain the colonists, and use them as subordinates and allies, wherein he
could gain access to metals and other important trade items. It was a matter of
strategy.
Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan. When initial supplies were insufficient,
Cpt. John Smith was sent to retrieve more from Powhatan but was captured and
sentenced to die - but was then "rescued" by Pocahontas. This was part of a
ceremony, however. John Smith was supposed to be saved, and through the
ceremony becomes a subordinate to Powhatan in a ceremony called a werowance.
Story is often romanticized, wherein Pocahontas 'saved' the Jamestown colonies.
Opechancanough, brother of Powhatan, in 1622 had different views on the settlers
- attempted an assault in order to remove settlers: the 'Virginia Massacre'. Failed to
dislodge the colony. The colonists used this to eliminate the Natives, such as
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Document Summary

Lecture 2: motivations for colonization, national rivalries. While previously allies, the relationship changed by the 1580s as they entered into war with each other. Establishing colonies in north america therefore became a competitive aspect to damage the other countries: religion. European-wide difficulties between protestants and catholics meant an additional aspect of competition - converting natives: economic need. The source of england"s economic stability collapsed in the mid 1560s, when their main export of selling wool and cloth to antwerp tailors collapsed. They therefore started forming trading companies (east india. Trading company) who went in search of other markets. English to become more of a seafaring nation: population pressure. Between 1500 and 1650, the population of england and. Collectively, these aspects convinced the monarchy to establish permanent settlements in the "new world". The lack of financing for the english monarchy was problematic, however. The solution was to subcontract colonization by allowing monopolies to private companies and adventurers.

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