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HIS271Y1 Lecture Notes - Party System, Chesapeake Affair, Embargo Act Of 1807

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Dr.Liamvan Beek

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HIS271Y Building a New NationOctober 27th 2010
and Making it Work
Federalists emphasized the strong, centralized government, suspicious of democracy,
argued for loose interpretation of the constitution, Alexander Hamilton, saw
progress as stemming from a more diversified economy
Democratic-Republicans argued for a more moderate form of federal government
with more power in the hands of individuals and states, Jefferson, emphasis on the
yeoman farmer
Although a period of political conflict, it was also a period of trying to define a
character of the US, symbols such as the capitol, George Washington, white house
Jay’s Treaty lead to further deterioration of relationship with US and British
Adams, however, wanted to avoid national conflict
Dont have the money, internal divisions, still a very young and vulnerable nation
Seeking to avoid a conflict, Adams sends delegates XYZ to France, who demanded
An outraged Adams urged congress to make preparations for war
Scurrying to make attempts to extend the military
Neither the Americans nor the French wanted to fully commit to a war
When France sought to reconcile, Adams is on board
Adams sends new delegates
Treaty is established, amicable divorce in a way, nullifying the old alliance but
neither were responsible for paying each other for damages
So on one hand, although the war was uneventful, it proved that the Federalists
were right in their suspicions of the French, added to their popularity
Shortlived, however

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HIS271Y Building a New NationOctober 27th 2010
and Making it Work
Ultimately, the Federalists used this newfound popularity to get the upperhand over
the republicans by undermining their supporters
The Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
Enacted by the Federalists, aims against the Republicans
Made it more difficult for immigrants to obtain citizenship
Made it easier for the president to expel immigrants who seemed suspicious
Federalists believed immigrants made up a wide base of support for the Rebuplicans
The Sedition Act made it easier to charge people with sedition
The Sedition Acts were aimed at the Republicans, all 25 used were levied against
The Sedition Act was set to expire in 1801 because the Federalists worried that if
they didnt win the election it could be used against them
The republicans accused it of being unconstitutional, but because most of the
Supreme Court was federalist, they didnt win in that regard
They instead tried to encourage the states to write resolves against these acts
Only two were successful, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolution
Virginia Resolution Madison
Kentucky Resolution Jefferson
Both argued that the power of the federal government rested on a contract with the
states and could only act in their interest. Within this context, the states had the
authority to judge the constitutionality of federal laws.
Jefferson argued that the states had the right to nullify laws if they believed the
government had exceeded tis power
The Revolution of 1800
The election of 1800 was one of the most contentious of American history
Federalists werent able to create as much public interest and opinion than the
Republicans, especially Jefferson
Used Sally Hemming, his slave, to defame him

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HIS271Y Building a New NationOctober 27th 2010
and Making it Work
However, the democratic republicans were successful, and Jefferson won 73 electoral
votes to Adams 65
Aaron Burr, however, also won 73 votes
Jefferson was seen as the lesser of two evils and he is elected Presidents
In 1804, Burr decides to run for Governor of New York, and Hamilton (also running)
bashes him
Burr challenges him to a duel
Hamilton dies
Aaron Burr continued to be an interesting character
In 1805/6 he tries to convince people to steal land in the west to start their own
country, and, after put on trial, goes to Europe
Jefferson called this election a revolution
Referring to a kind of wheel revolution, saying that what he hoped would happen
that would be with his election, the US would see the returns of the original
principles of the Revolution
Argued that under the Federalists they US had lost sight of those values, and he
would reinforce them by limiting the power of the government and enforcing public
Ultimately, he tried to distance himself from the customs and practices that he
thought were too hierarchical and monarchical
In his inaugural address, he outlined the key features of what would become
Jeffersonian Republicanism
1.Creating a stronger sense of unity
2.Downplayed political divisions
3.Protection of individual rights
4.Tried to lessen fears of Republican government, encouraging Americans
that a republican government could still be powerful
5.Urged the nation to avoid entangling alliances, wanting US isolation
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