Territorial Expansion and Sectional Conflict

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14 Feb 2011
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HIS271YTerritorial Expansion and Sectional ConflictNovember 10th 2010
๎€On top of industrialization and urbanization, immigration, expansion, and slavery
are also adding to sectional conflict
Immigration
๎€1790-1840 the population in the US tripled, and would continue to double in every 25
years
๎€On the eve of the civil war, there were 33 states
๎€Cities were also skyrocketing
๎€In 1790, there were only 2 cities with populations over 20,000, but by the 1840s, over
40 cities could boast those numbers
๎€This increase comes as a result of massive immigration
๎€The first wave of immigration begins in the early 19th century, roughly around the
time of the War of 1812 and continues until it peaks in the 1830s/40s
๎€This immigrant population consisted largely of immigrants from England, Ireland,
and Germany
๎€They were coming in such large numbers because:
๎€Push factors: political/religious strife, poverty, population growth,
agricultural depression
๎€Pull factors: promise of a better life, the โ€˜American Dreamโ€™
๎€American fever
๎€Industrialists deliberately encouraged immigration by offering incentives to workers
๎€Immigrants, because they provided cheap labour, were key to the growth of some of
Americaโ€™s key industries
๎€Railroad lines also worked to encourage immigration
๎€The railroad companies were granted large tracts of land along their railroads and
thus wanted people to live and work the lands
๎€States also worked to encourage immigration
๎€Even shipping lines advertised
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HIS271YTerritorial Expansion and Sectional ConflictNovember 10th 2010
๎€Families would send money back home to finance family members immigrating
๎€Enthusiasm to conform to American culture
๎€Civic nationalism: an identity based on a shared set of values rather than an
identity based on a shared background and race
๎€However, life in the US could be very difficult for immigrants
๎€This could begin as soon as they began their journey, the shipsโ€™ conditions were long
and gruelling, diseases
๎€Arrival could also be hard: some states tried to pass legislation to regulate the
intake of new immigrants, head taxes, state laws were aimed to both protect
immigrants and protect Americans
๎€The chief fears at the time were that the massive flux of immigrants would be a
financial strain on the states and also the fear of the spread of disease
๎€Ultimately, we see in this that many contemporaries were weary of the impact of
such an influx of the population
๎€Of particular concern was that these new individuals would engulf the โ€˜nativeโ€™
American culture, disrupting their institutions and values
๎€One of the chief concerns was pauperism, that the immigrants would be a strain on
the states and jobs, that they would work for less and thus drive wages down
๎€More significant was what some saw was the growing political power of these new
immigrants, particularly in the Democrat party, especially in New York/Jersey
๎€Religion also played a role in this: majority of Irish settlers were Catholic
๎€Anti-Catholicism was particularly rampant at this time in the States
๎€Notion that the Irish were not willing to integrate, Irish Catholic schools
๎€Stereotyped as ignorant, lazy, undisciplined, and unsuited to freedom
๎€Nativism wasnโ€™t just about racism, however
๎€It demonstrated the degree to which immigration separated American politics
๎€Introduction of new parties whose entire goal was to undermine the new immigrants
๎€The โ€œknow-Nothingโ€ Party
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Document Summary

on top of industrialization and urbanization, immigration, expansion, and slavery are also adding to sectional conflict. 1790-1840 the population in the us t ripled, and would continue to double in every 25 years. on the eve of the civil war, there were 33 states. In 1790, there were only 2 cities with populations over 20,000, but by the 1840s, over. This increase comes as a result of massive immigration. The first wave of immigration begins in the early 19th century, roughly around the time of the war of 1812 and continues until it peaks in the 1830s/40s. This immigrant population consisted largely of immigrants from england, i reland, and germany. They were coming in such large numbers because: push factors: agricultural depression political/religious strife, poverty, population growth, pull factors: promise of a better life, the american dream". Industrialists deliberately encouraged immigration by offering incentives to workers.

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