14a - Making of Modern Am.doc

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30 Mar 2012
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THE MAKING OF MODERN AMERICA
Industrialization in the Gilded Age (the Machine Age), 1870-1914
(Jan 18)
Guest Lecture by Michael Wilcox
I. Introduction to economic and social change
Industrialization
What’s propelling this industrial revolution forward?
oThe harnessing of electricity
oThe internal combustion engine
Key developments
oFactory mode of production
oAssembly lines
oMechanization
II. Pre-Gilded Age Economy
1. agriculturally-based
2. artisan (task-oriented) mode of production
3. master craftsmen and apprentices
4. creating and selling at the local level
5. low volume of production and trade
6. independence and workers control
III. Gilded Age Technological and Workplace Changes
1. growth in industrial production
1. Lowell, Massachusetts
2. electricity and the internal combustion engine
1. Edison Electric Light Company
2. General Electric Company
3. Westinghouse Electric
3. mechanization, assembly-line, factory mode of production, deskilling
1. Frederick Winslow Taylor and his “Time and Motion Studies”
Treated humans like machinery
2. Bethlehem Steel Company
3. Scientific Management of Industry
4. “efficiency” and “land of the time clock”
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IV. The Rise of Corporations
1. Mass production and mass distribution
1. Ford Motor Company
2. economic combinations and innovations with management
1. vertical integration: one company buying up all aspects related to their operations (feeder
industries), with the effect of integrating all stages of production, including the extractions of
raw materials, manufacturing, transporting, marketing, and distributing (Carnegie Steel
Company)
2. horizontal integration: one company buying out its rivals and competition to dominate the
market (Rockefeller)
V. Responses to Industrialization
1. The “Labour Question”
1. Working conditions
2. Wages
3. Hours
4. Compensation
5. Deskilling
6. Independence
7. Control
8. Industrial relations
9. Workplace conditions
10. Economic anxiety
2. Labour Unrest
1. Militancy (breaking machinery, industrial “accidents”, slowing down production)
2. Strikes (Railroad Strikes of 1877 and Haymarket Riot)
3. Rise of unions; bargaining, pressure tactics
4. Politics; progressivism; socialism
3. Unionization
1. Knights of Labor (Terence V. Powderly)
2. American Federation of Labor (AFL, Samuel Gompers)
3. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW/Wobblies, One Big Union, Joe Hill)
4. International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU)
5. Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL)
4. Politics
1. legislative changes and introduction of Labor Day
2. socialism (Eugene Debs and the Socialist Party of America)
IMMIGRATION & URBANIZATION
(Dr. Black)
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