HIS271Y1 Lecture Notes - New England Confederation, Salem Witch Trials, Half-Way Covenant

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Published on 31 Aug 2012
School
UTSG
Department
History
Course
HIS271Y1
Professor
HIS271 - Life in the Colonies
Wednesday, September 29th/ 2010
Anne Hutchinson
“A lonely exemplar in new born America of that freedom of thought, word, and action that
women now accept as unthinkingly as the air they breathe” – Winnifred King Rugg
She thought the ministers in New England were focusing too much on a covenant of works
The laws of man were irrelevant to Anne
The Halfway Covenant (your status in the church mirrored your status in society). The
covenant said you could inherit your status
However, as the community of New England grew, tensions increased
1640s = 20,000-25,000 people migrated to the Plymouth colonies
1700 = population of 93,000
The increase in population was due to 90% of people migrating were families
Family Portraiture
Women married in their early 20s, which meant when they hit menopause, they gave birth to
10-30 children
Families brought size and stability
If you migrated to New England, it added 10 years to your life
Most of the people who migrated to New England were more skilled (doctors, lawyers, etc)
In the 1660s, the populations of New England and the Chesapeake were almost identical,
which showed New England had more growth
Manufacturing and exporting of raw materials became the norm…more merchants
As the population grew in New England, more and more people moved away from the
community centers, which is where the church was located
While prosperity was a sign of a colonies success, it caused anxiety on some of the leaders
Three kinds of Colonies
1. Charter Colony created by the charter of a king (ex. Hudson’s Bay Colony, Virginia Colony)
2. Proprietary Colony a parcel of land was granted to an individual/group, and they decide
the makeup/distribution of the land (ex. Pennsylvania, the Carolinas)
3. Royal Colony Happened afterwards (ex. Virginia was originally a charter colony, but turned
into a royal company mainly due to the Virginia Colony becoming bankrupt). In this case, the
governor would be chosen by parliament
Settlers began to see the need for something more centralized. They were thinking about
transportation, how to regulate inter-colonial trade, how to handle criminal issues, etc
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New England Confederation
New England, Massachusetts, and Plymouth
Create a defense system to regulate inter-colonial trade, crime, etc
As they became more productive, they became more lucrative towards their supporters in
England
Laws to Regulate Trade
In the 1650s Parliament passes laws limiting trade with other European countries
Parliament passes the Navigation Acts:
1. The first act passed in 1651 and reenacted in 1660
Limits colonial trade to goods carried by English ships
Colonists can only export their goods to England or to English possessions
2. The second act passed in 1663
Subjected all goods sent from Europe to the colonies to English taxation
3. The third act passed in 1673
Imposed duties on costal trade within the colonies and appointed customs officers to
enforce the Acts
These were followed by more active activity by the colonies
Brought Plymouth Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Parts of Maine, New Jersey into one union
(central control)
Sir Edmund Andros and the Dominion of New England
Destroyed the sense of political autonomy that characterized life in the colonies up to this
point
Andros demonstrated a misunderstanding of the inter-colonial relationships/connections
Andros was an Anglican (so he had no sense of their religion), so he brought with him a strong
military defense, actively undermined political institutions that were implemented by colonists,
he put restrictions on courts, schools, etc, and to many it seemed like an arbitrary ruler ship
The Glorious Revolution
William of Orange (married to Mary) invaded England, and James fled to France, leaving the
throne empty
Produces in England a new bill of rights, and a limited monarchy
When word of the revolution reached the colonies, they were quick to react
This was felt in New Jersey, Maryland, New York, and New England
Leisler’s Rebellion
The revolution was a turning point…we see a strong bond that exists between England and the
colonies, but at the same time, it is seen as the beginning of the deterioration of the relationship
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Document Summary

A lonely exemplar in new born america of that freedom of thought, word, and action that women now accept as unthinkingly as the air they breathe winnifred king rugg. She thought the ministers in new england were focusing too much on a covenant of works. The laws of man were irrelevant to anne. The halfway covenant (your status in the church mirrored your status in society). The covenant said you could inherit your status. However, as the community of new england grew, tensions increased. 1640s = 20,000-25,000 people migrated to the plymouth colonies. The increase in population was due to 90% of people migrating were families. Women married in their early 20s, which meant when they hit menopause, they gave birth to. If you migrated to new england, it added 10 years to your life. Most of the people who migrated to new england were more skilled (doctors, lawyers, etc)

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