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Lecture 10

HIS280Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Partible Inheritance, Heshen, Niohuru

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Paul Thompson

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Lecture 10
- review: 1839 between Qing china and British empire [ modern Chinese?]
Inside of qing empire in late 18 century
- Demographic and Environmental
incredible population growth
17 to 19 century -> the Qing population triple close to 13 millions
amount of land and agriculture was expanding -> land under cultivation for
agriculture doubles
however, the amount of land and agriculture does not meet the triple population
Xianjiang and Taiwan and south west -> pushed people to live in those palaces
by late 18 century only 1 percent were giving provincial degree -> probalby wont even
get an official position
- it was a tough time
- there were not enough revenue to look after people
- not enough minister or officials to look after people either
- Partible inheritance and gangue
Partible inheritance: children each receive a part of inheritance in contrast to
primogeniture [ to the oldest male child]
People were expected to produce a lot of children
guanggun -> bare stick [ unmarried single poor men]
- became a category for crime and disorder in the eyes of law enforcement
the popualtion growth was very sex scred -> only male were more welcome because
they can take care of the household
- Agriculture economy
stable of Qing economy
Corn and peanuts ->
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everyone is farming and expanding and exploring new lands -> the problem with
soil was not rich anymore which takes longer to farm -> erosion was a problem as
well, 1855 fled
temperature drop as well -> climate chnages
- Fiscal [mis]management
Grand Canal -> linking Yangzi to Beijing and very important that the grain ship will
send to Beijing
Grand cannal needed a lot of maintenance -> became un mantained, only a quarter
of the ships can only use the grand cannal and the officials decided to rule it
until 1840 -> they gave up, they decided to use the ocean instead
- Money to nourish honesty
silver became very expensive
people were using copper points and pay taxes in nuggest of silver [ fees for the local]
allowed corruption to happen
institution money to nourish honesty: additional salary to be paid to local and
provincial officials; common corruption and embezzlement
- example of late qing corruption:
Niohuru Heshen -> young a guard officer. rise from imperial guard to vice president of
six ministry, grand chancellor, and he accumulated the half of revenue collected by
imperial government ; high level corruption
- oldest song married Qianglong’s daughter
- as soon as Qianglong died, Jiaqing forced Heshen to commit suicide
- Economic “involution”
growth without develope
qing support more and more people but they didnt have insentive in research
development [ inventing things that save labour]
rely on manual labour -> with each margin increase of labour
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