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Lecture 9

HIS280Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Canton System, Yongzheng Emperor, Cohong

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Paul Thompson

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Lecture 9
- 19th century into a era where the Qing represents the imperial bureaucracy
- ming period: Portuguese, dutch trading [macao] [spanish-> philiphines]
- silver became the principle for state financial income -> silver became a huge
- East india compnay: Britain in 1600s India and created mercantilism: soveren state->
pursuing political power through trade; queen Elizabeth working with merchants to
expand maritime trading
- strict traveling -> Kaixing rejected Chinese leaving the empire
- kaixing ordered people who were working in Philipines to coem back
- 10 of thousands merchants male lived in other Eastern countries [ cruel to establish
that law to them to come back to china within three year]
- 1700s Yongzheng negotiation with provinsial in the South [ engage with trade] and
allowed Chinese to stay out to be extended
- Provinsial officials gained profit from Maritine merchants
- Canton system : focused in southern city in Canton [ Guangdong]
- guangzhou is in the southern and had lots of waterway and it is a pearl river delta ->
many dealta way > allow docking etc
guangzhou focuses on water trading
- very big trading location
- 1684 after defeate of Jin pirate -> in mid 1680s Kangxi suppressed those people and
thus allowed maritime trading
which benefited Canton
- Hoppo: station of the trading, corrupted; this official is not from ministry of revenue he
was imperial household person ; he is direct servant of the emperor but it is not a
offical that rose from the civil exmination
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- 1725: Yongzheng -> created Cohong
- Cohong: umberalla of merchant groups, take up role in specializing in foreing trade,
exclusive trading license from government
- 1757: thats the year Qianglong that Canton is the only port to be open to foreign
trading > cutting the uncessary side branches other than Canton away
It was a very strict regulated system -> when your ship can come, where you should
live, with whom can you trade with, lots of manifestation of local qing officials
Japanese had similar system in Nakasaji -> European were controlled
- Aritifical island -> European that can put their goods,
- European male were banned to bring women and banned weapons as well
- legal authority -> 1784s sailor fired the signal but the cannon landed on a Chinese
fisherman and killed him and was executed by the imperial Chinese court
- tea is a big thing for European -> very new, fancy gear with teapots
- Qing banned tea because it sound supsicious and there was a black market
1769 Northern american colonies comsuing 90,000 pounds of tea every year
by 1920s britian imported 2 bounds of tea per person per year
tea taxation 1/10 of British government revenue-> huge deal for British government
tea is losing money, unstablized
- Macartney Misson: wanted to make some request with the Qing government
Lord Maccartney: experienced dipolmat, russia, carribean , 1792 he left Britain
bounded to China
trying to negotiate what the Britain want
brought present for Qianglong’s 80th birthday
100 scientist, artistis etc came along and they wanted to open more port
canton is too strict and wanted things to be loosen it
wanted to instal british ambassadors
economically oriented goal
when they got there, he bent down on one knee -> when you meet emperor of china
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