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Lecture 5

HIS311Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Industrial Revolution, Absolute Monarchy, Edward Braddock

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Robert Bothwell

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Seven (!!!) years war 1753-1763
French and Indian War
Sir William Johnson
France —> Louis XIV —> Marquis de Vaudreuil —> Marquis de Montcalm etc
Britain —> George II —> Newcastle/Pitt —> etc
18th century governments were all about money, taxes, mobilizing economic resources —
projecting them in terms in state power
comparative histories of Britain and France
-the British turn out to be a lot better at it
-France is the more attractive country
-in France, the French government is really coping with an economic and financial system
devised in the 16th c.
-hard to raise money and depended a lot on coercive power of the state
-for the state to work at all there needs to be a fair amount of local concession
-truly complicated, non functional and contradictory system of goverment
-on top of it all is the King Louis XIV
-sits on top of the French pyramid
-gives his ministers a great deal of power
-ministers in 1640s-50s were not entirely up to the job
-also the case with the local reps of the French crown
New France has a governor
-always a French nobleman
-alternated between Naval officers and army officers
-after the peace of 1748 the governors of New France got out of control
-the British PM, duke of Newcastle isn’t known for very much
-“wild governors” — they wanted to compensate for French weakness by extending
themselves territorially
-the British colonies are expanding in population very rapidly and filling up the arable land
-economy is still agricultural
-along Atlantic coast
-once land is occupied and immigrants are still coming in, they have to go somewhere
-volatile element, the dominant element in NA :the real estate speculator
-they have the idea that the new settlers will move northward
-along the back of the colonies are the Appalachian mountains — they are a barrier
between the water and lands in back
-1750s British settlers are being funnelled over the Appalachians
-British government is very corrupt and the governor of Virginia was a real estate
-saw no contradiction at all between his role as a governor and speculator
George Washington
-wanted to occupy those lands on the other side of the Appalachians but in the middle are the
-the French are protected by hundreds of miles of wilderness b/w themselves and the British
-hard to get anywhere in the interior of NA
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-the 50 or 60 000 settlers in New France are not protected by their own strength or the French
army but by the wilderness
-disease and vermin are really the army of New France
-the natural barrier is going to be narrowed
-The basic strategic dilemma is there
New France has another military advantage
-1701 Treaty — IMPORTANT — EXAM
-the French could rely on the Natives for the most
-the french also have a system of posts which extend from about Lac Champlain down
through Kingston (Fort Frontenac), to Fort Niagara that move towards St-Louis, and all the
way down to New Orleans
-Montreal to New Orleans there are less than 2000 French and only a small proportion are
-creating the illusion of strategic domination
Irresponsible government in New France
-leads to higher presence of the French by the Appalachians
-the casualties (there is not a battle) their job is to build forts and road but 1/3 of them die
-18th C. warfare down to 1880s more people die of disease than enemy action
-military campaigns even without shooting can be and will be costly
-losing 500 to 600 is quite a blow to a colony of 50 000
-very body male between certain ages 15-60 is supposed to be available to serve in the militia:
-gave thought to the people back in New France
-do we really have to go?
-conscript system may work under certain circumstances but as a regular thing it is very
The French demonstrate they have a certain power and can extend into unoccupied territory
-the cost is insurmountable
Seven Years War
-really began in NA in 1753
-attempt by government of Virginia to assert V’s control over real estate
-George Washington is only 21 years old
-is put in command of mission
-runs into the French who shoo him away nicely
-he goes back but there is fighting
-kills an officer and the French capture him but let him go
-Washington goes back to V.
-Newcastle sends troops to NA
-miniature armies
-one goes to NY and the other to V
-their job is to march towards the French
-the commander of the southern army General Edward Braddock
-known as having caused one of the greater disasters in British military history
-march to wards Pittsburgh but they don't get there because the French + natives are
-open fire
-Braddock is killed
-army is defeated and flee back towards V
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