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Lecture 21

HIS311Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Jean-Paul Sartre, English Canada, Appeasement


Department
History
Course Code
HIS311Y1
Professor
Robert Bothwell
Lecture
21

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Appeasement
-what was it?
-other side has justified grievance
-concessions may be disproportionate
-interwar period (1919-1939) the starting point is the Treaty of Versaills
-has been written about at great length
-model of simplicity compared to treaties today
-brought about a war between the Germans and the Allies
Intermixture of Poles and Germans on the border of Germany
-a lot of Polish names held by unilingual Germans
-Eastern frontier there was an attempt to draw the line between ethnic and linguistic lines
West
-Germany loses territory to Denmark
-some of the territory that Germany had taken in 1866 was returned to Denmark
-Alsace & Lorraine was now returned to France
-territorial losses
Restrictions on Germany’s ability to make war
-limits placed on Germany navy and army
-forbidding to have an airforce
-could not have submarines
-army limited to 100,000 troops
-no conscription, and entirely voluntary based
-the allies occupied the Western part of Germany along the river Rhine
-Rhineland and bridges across the land allow the allies to drive into Germany should there
ever be a war
-this was to reassure France because it has a much smaller population
-occupied territory was also conditional on Germany paying reparations
-Germany had started the war and therefore should pay the cost of the war
-the Germans had devastated large parts of Northeastern France
-for these atrocities the Germans definitely should pay
-burden of reparations is the first shink in the treaty of Versailles
-Greece present-day
-borrowed money
-defaulted on the money
-couldn’t pay it
-Germans got upset and forced the Greeks to cough up
-very similar to what happened in the 1920s with German reparations
-the fundamental point is that Germany couldn’t afford the reparations
-there was no way for Germany to objectively pay for it
-it doesn’t matter if the Allies were justified, if the perpetrator can’t pay, well they can’t pay
-the France got very upset, principle sufferer
-used their army in 1920s to occupy large parts of Germany to force them to pay
-Germans practiced form of financial Guerrilla war
-undermined the German middle-class, inflated German money
-parts of society became quite unstable and unhinged
-Canada is a by-stander in this process
-point of view would have been the same as the British
-British gov’t increasingly regretted reparations
-American and British policies were directed at lessening the burden of reparations
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-origins of the word
-applications in 1920s, early 1930s
-British policies toward Germany is appeasement
-if you give Germany enough of a chance, Germany will be reinstated in the international
sphere
-Treaty of Locarno — is a kind of supplement to Versailles
-doesn’t disturb the reparation grievances
-always a fringe that does not accept the Treaty of Versailles and believes that the treaty
was fundamentally unjust
-reverse image of the allied view of Germany as a culprit
-a lot this depended on a historical assumption: Germans had started the war
-1920s,1930s alternate views of the origins of WWI began to appear
-at the very least Germany shared the responsibility of WWI with Allies
-Canadian perspective is being challenged
-German democracy collapses in 1930-1933
-culminates in appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany
-in West it was believed that Hitler was the product of the Allies in 1919 and the failure of
the Allies to resolve these issues in 1920s
-some people really felt appeasement was the only way to deal with Germany
-Germany’s grievances were justified (to a certain extent)
-Appeasement is particularly British and acts in restraint of France
-France is military and economically weakened by WWI
-France’s weakness is such that they depended absolutely on Britain
-if Britain doesn’t help France, France position on the world stage would be undermined
-France often regarded as satellite of Britain
“The world is run by idiots” — Bothwell
“It’s probably Hitler, he’s trying to undermine us.” — Bothwell
Stages
-1935
-Drought in Canadian Prairies
-Depression is ongoing and horrible thing
-Canadians in general, and politicians pay attention to that immediate phenomenon
-Canada’s information regarding foreign affairs all come from Britain
-behind regular forces there is a militia forces
Anglo- German Naval Treaty
-Violates treaty of Versailles
-Scraps naval component part of treaty of Versailles and agrees that the German Navy can
now expand
-does not consult France
-occupation zone in Germany, Britain and France have retreated from occupation zone in
Germany in an attempt to help with democracy
-but now Germany occupies this area militarily
-Germany increase their strategic position and proclaim conscription
-France’s defence has been completely compromised
-1936
-King increases military budget (and does it again in 1937)
-brings up a debate in parliament
-treading a very careful line
-Canadian military is completely insufficient to defend Canada
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