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Lecture 2

HIS312H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Lower Canada, Lake Ontario, Economic Migrant


Department
History
Course Code
HIS312H1
Professor
Ian Radforth
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2 9/22/2015 10:08:00 PM
Introduction:
Sudden influx because of American Revolution, 1770s and 1780s
Who were the Loyalists? Whites; Blacks; Iroquois
Wartime Loyalist Experiences: gender mattered
Settlements:
Upper Canada (Ontario)
A sudden influx
American Revolutionary War, 1775-1783
American population divided
o Supports the American revolution
o Supports the British authority
o People who were in between the American revolution and the
British authority
Loyalist migration north
Loyalist pride
Founders of Upper Canada (Ontario) and New Brunswick: privileged
status?
o Created in 1791
o Lower Canada = Quebec?
Canada’s first refugees
Early refugee movement, out of a war torn area (the United
States); a refugee movement made by men, women and children
that was made by war (fled death and threats)
Note on sources
Getting into the loyalist period is where we would find an
abundance of sources
Loyalists had made statements to the crown about their losses
Who were the Loyalists?
White loyalists
o Diversity among them
o Cross section of society
o Whole families refugees whose lives were upturned by the
war were seeking sanctuary
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o Political convictions (classic loyalists of the ULE, the privileged
people who lived in the thirteen colonies, thought of
themselves as superiors [lost their jobs during the revolution,
didn’t have their salaries/their prestigious positions]);
patronage; vulnerable minorities (Catholic in a Protestant
community, vice versa etc.) (picked on, have your property
stolen, farms burned, didn’t have enough people to
support/back you up and thus, had to flee); economic
migrant
Black Loyalists:
2,500 slaves brought by white owners as property
Free blacks came as refugees
o 3,000 from New York to Nova Scotia, 1783
some stayed in Nova Scotia and some left
o most had gained their freedom by siding with the British
Iroquois:
Six Nations south of Lake Ontario
Divided by the war some supported the revolutionary’s, some
supported the British and others were neutral
Britain’s promise, protest, compensation
Mohawk Loyalists and others settled mostly on the Grand River
reserve near Brantford
o Grand river drains into Lake Erie
Wartime and Migration Experiences:
Gender matters
o Men as soldiers
The provincial corps
Risky, but camaraderie and male bonding
Land as compensation (officers was offered much more
land than soldiers) they benefitted from their service
from the compensation offered to them
o Women
Caring for farm, business, and children
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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