- Freed blacks moved into BC, also jews, germans, Italians, Spaniards, Chinese.
Multicultural aspect in Vancouver island and the mainland due to the gold rush.
Early 1860s a second rush was made to the Cariboo country in Barkerville
-1849-1871: colonial era
-1849: colony of Vancouver island established
- formally established in 1858 the colony of BC (mainland)
- in 1866: amalgamation under name BC
-1871: joined confederation with Canada: province of BC
• A Homosocial Culture on the Frontier
- population was mostly male, single young men from California but also from Britain
and other places.
- large indigenous population
- worried of the success of the colony, as there were few women to produce families
- men had to establish their own households if they were going to live well on the
-advice books and pamphlets telling them how they should proceed on this frontier. They
said you should make up a household with a group of men you meet on the
frontier, 6 should live together. In a shack, out of the materials at hand.
- spread the household work so that everyone could have their turn at making money with
the gold. Or specialists, one guy cooked as he was the best at it.
- men on the frontier lived a dangerous life, collapse at th digging sites, working with
- if you lived together you could be nursed by others in your household
- men drank heavily, often fought, sorted out their differences on the frontier by fighting.
Toughest guy, the winner, took charge.
- heavy gambling culture
- white men did sleep together on the frontier because there were no white women
- also been suggested that white men may have slept together on the frontier because the
alternative seemed much worse: sleep with aboriginal women. Racial barrier was
so great that they couldn’t imagine sleeping with aboriginal women.
-Amelia Douglas 1865, tried to pose as a British woman because she thought she would
be better accepted. Married to the governor, did not want to admit to her
-these marriages were not sanctified by the church, nor were they licensed.
- some where temporary, you lived with one woman for a period of time, and then they
moved on in their own directions.
-some were lifetime, the patterns vary.