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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 and part of 4


Department
History
Course Code
HIS312H1
Professor
Ian Radforth
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3: Migration from the British Isles to 1865
Wartime Migration, 1800-1814
Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812: a brake on migration
Exceptions
Newfoundlands rapid settlement Scots in the Maritimes: Lord Selkirk
and assisted immigration to PEI
Upper Canada
The Late Loyalists (people coming from the united states)
Mennonites: pacifists
Glengarry: group/clan migrations
-Upper Canada got the bulk of the settlers during this period, and the area of
most rapid growth, 1791 was the year in which Upper Canada was created
-1791-1860 Canada was known as British North America, a series of distinct
British colonies under the control of a British governor general
-before 1815 a wartime period and after a period of a great migration
-both the Napoleonic wars and war of 1812 had a impact on immigration, it
discouraged immigration because it was particularly risky to travel across the
Atlantic because boats could be attacked, in the war of 1812-1814 immigration
from America to Canada was very little
The dangers of transatlantic travel has an opposite effect in Newfoundland,
for fishers it was safe to settle in Newfoundland then to go home, population
grew from 25000-35000, Irish English and protestant catholic mixes in
Newfoundland
Scottish Immigration to Canada
-about 8500 Scots settled in a number of places in the Maritime region, along
the coasts
-there was a group of Scottish immigrants who settled on Prince Edward
Island
-Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk used his personal wealth to fund some
immigration of Scots to PEI, he wanted to see colonies built up and suffering
stopped, 800 Scots came to PEI in 1803 under the auspices of Selkirk, they
were farmers and paid rent instead of owning the land, he also provided them
with funds to help them get established, i.e. food and tools, he also paid for
their voyage across the Oceans, this was a great success as a farming venture
-also seen as a founding father of PEI and Manitoba
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-newcomers wrote letters to encourage their family and people back home to
immigrate to PEI, this is called chain migration
Late Loyalists Immigrants
-among the Americans coming to Canada was a particular group, the
Mennonites who were a religious group and were German speakers who had
settled in Pennsylvania
-about 2000 Mennonites moved into Upper Canada who responded to the
advertisements to moved to Canada, they did not want to enlist in any armies
and were pressured to do so in the united States, Simcoe promised them they
could come settle in Canada without having to join the army and would be
free to live their pacifist lives
Glengarry Highlanders Immigrants
-immigrants who came from the highlands of Scotland as early as 1785 and
they settled on the upper St Lawrence River and eventually there were nine
sailings (crossings) by the Glengarry highlanders to Upper Canada and
named the land they moved to Glengarry
-were mostly from the middling ranks of society, not the elite, people who had
something to sell and were able to pay their own passage, they travelled in
quality
-their goal was to see that their life would be carried on and the kin groups
they loved in Scotland could be continued elsewhere
-they were able to settle among their own relatives, and transfer their
customs to Upper Canada and spoke Gaelic
-gave flavour to Canada, their poetry, and music
The Period of the Great Migration (huge exodus of European
settlers)
-6 million British settlers left the British Isles, 4 million went to the U.S. and
1 million went to New Zealand & Australia, 1.3 came to Canada
-by the 1860s there seemed to be no empty land left in Canada in Upper
Canada
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